Atopic dermatitis (eczema) - Symptoms and causes (2022)

Overview

Atopic dermatitis on the ankles

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) - Symptoms and causes (1)

Atopic dermatitis on the ankles

Atopic dermatitis can cause thickened dry skin and a rash.

Atopic dermatitis behind the knees

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) - Symptoms and causes (2)

Atopic dermatitis behind the knees

Atopic dermatitis can cause a very itchy rash. Atopic dermatitis most often occurs where the skin flexes — inside the elbows, behind the knees and in front of the neck.

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) is a condition that causes dry, itchy and inflamed skin. It's common in young children but can occur at any age. Atopic dermatitis is long lasting (chronic) and tends to flare sometimes. It can be irritating but it's not contagious.

People with atopic dermatitis are at risk of developing food allergies, hay fever and asthma.

Moisturizing regularly and following other skin care habits can relieve itching and prevent new outbreaks (flares). Treatment may also include medicated ointments or creams.

(Video) Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) | Atopic Triad, Triggers, Who gets it, Why does it happen, & Treatment

Symptoms

Atopic dermatitis on the chest

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) - Symptoms and causes (3)

Atopic dermatitis on the chest

Inflammation caused by atopic dermatitis can cover large areas of the body, such as the chest, or be limited to a few small spots.

Infantile eczema

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) - Symptoms and causes (4)

Infantile eczema

Atopic dermatitis in infants (infantile eczema) appears here as red, itchy patches on very dry skin.

(Video) Atopic Dermatitis - Eczema, Lotions, and Treatment

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) symptoms can appear anywhere on the body and vary widely from person to person. They may include:

  • Dry, cracked skin
  • Itchiness (pruritus)
  • Rash on swollen skin that varies in color depending on your skin color
  • Small, raised bumps, on brown or Black skin
  • Oozing and crusting
  • Thickened skin
  • Darkening of the skin around the eyes
  • Raw, sensitive skin from scratching

Atopic dermatitis often begins before age 5 and may continue into the teen and adult years. For some people, it flares and then clears up for a time, even for several years.

When to see a doctor

Talk with a health care provider if you or your child:

  • Has symptoms of atopic dermatitis
  • Is so uncomfortable that the condition is affecting sleep and daily activities
  • Has a skin infection — look for new streaks, pus, yellow scabs
  • Has symptoms even after trying self-care steps

Seek immediate medical attention if you or your child has a fever and the rash looks infected.

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(Video) What to do if you have eczema (atopic dermatitis)

Causes

Mayo Clinic Minute: Eczema occurs in people of all ages

Jason T. Howland: Atopic dermatitis is a sensitivity disease of the skin, similar to asthma in the lungs, hay fever in the sinuses and food allergies in the gut.

Dawn Marie R. Davis, M.D.: It's a multisystem disorder. Inflammation affects the skin, and the skin is more sensitive than usual.

Howland: It's a chronic condition and tends to flare periodically. The symptoms vary.

Dr. Davis: Atopic dermatitis tends to be red, weepy, crusty, itchy, flaky patches, like oval or circular-shaped areas on the skin.

Our skin is like a brick wall. And over time as we age, or genetically if we are predisposed to sensitive skin, it can look like a wicker basket more than a brick wall.

Howland: Adult eczema often occurs in patches on areas of the body prone to friction or sweat.

Dr. Davis: Where your waistband would sit, where your socks or shoes would rub. If you have a watch, where you would wear your watch. If you have a headband or certain things that you wear along your neck, like a necklace or a tie.

It's important to bathe regularly. It's important to hydrate the skin with a moisturizer that is hypoallergenic. It's important to monitor for infection.

Howland: If those self-care steps don't help, your dermatologist may prescribe topical or oral medications, or other therapies.

For Mayo Clinic News Network, I'm Jason Howland.

In some people, atopic dermatitis is related to a gene variation that affects the skin's ability to provide protection. With a weak barrier function, the skin is less able to retain moisture and protect against bacteria, irritants, allergens and environmental factors — such as tobacco smoke.

In other people, atopic dermatitis is caused by too much of the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus on the skin. This displaces helpful bacteria and disrupts the skin's barrier function.

A weak skin barrier function might also trigger an immune system response that causes the inflamed skin and other symptoms.

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) is one of several types of dermatitis. Other common types are contact dermatitis and seborrheic dermatitis (dandruff). Dermatitis isn't contagious.

(Video) How is atopic dermatitis diagnosed?

Risk factors

The main risk factor for atopic dermatitis is having had eczema, allergies, hay fever or asthma in the past. Having family members with these conditions also increases your risk.

Complications

Complications of atopic dermatitis (eczema) may include:

  • Asthma and hay fever. Many people with atopic dermatitis develop asthma and hay fever. This can happen before or after developing atopic dermatitis.
  • Food allergies. People with atopic dermatitis often develop food allergies. One of the main symptoms of this condition is hives (urticaria).
  • Chronic itchy, scaly skin. A skin condition called neurodermatitis (lichen simplex chronicus) starts with a patch of itchy skin. You scratch the area, which provides only temporary relief. Scratching actually makes the skin itchier because it activates the nerve fibers in your skin. Over time, you may scratch out of habit. This condition can cause the affected skin to become discolored, thick and leathery.
  • Patches of skin that's darker or lighter than the surrounding area. This complication after the rash has healed is called post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation or hypopigmentation. It's more common in people with brown or Black skin. It might take several months for the discoloration to fade.
  • Skin infections. Repeated scratching that breaks the skin can cause open sores and cracks. These increase the risk of infection from bacteria and viruses. These skin infections can spread and become life-threatening.
  • Irritant hand dermatitis. This especially affects people whose hands are often wet and exposed to harsh soaps, detergents and disinfectant at work.
  • Allergic contact dermatitis. This condition is common in people with atopic dermatitis. Allergic contact dermatitis is an itchy rash caused by touching substances you're allergic to. The color of the rash varies depending on your skin color.
  • Sleep problems. The itchiness of atopic dermatitis can interfere with sleep.
  • Mental health conditions. Atopic dermatitis is associated with depression and anxiety. This may be related to the constant itching and sleep problems common among people with atopic dermatitis.

Prevention

Developing a basic skin care routine may help prevent eczema flares. The following tips may help reduce the drying effects of bathing:

  • Moisturize your skin at least twice a day. Creams, ointments, shea butter and lotions seal in moisture. Choose a product or products that work well for you. Ideally, the best one for you will be safe, effective, affordable and unscented.

    Using petroleum jelly on your baby's skin may help prevent development of atopic dermatitis.

  • Take a daily bath or shower. Use warm, rather than hot, water and limit your bath or shower to about 10 minutes.
  • Use a gentle, nonsoap cleanser. Choose a cleanser that's free of dyes, alcohols and fragrance. For young children, you usually need only warm water to get them clean — no soap or bubble bath needed. Soap can be especially irritating to the skin of young children. For people of any age, deodorant soaps and antibacterial soaps can remove too much of the skin's natural oils and dry the skin. Don't scrub the skin with a washcloth or loofah.
  • Pat dry. After bathing, gently pat the skin with a soft towel. Apply moisturizer while your skin is still damp (within three minutes).

The triggers for atopic dermatitis vary widely from person to person. Try to identify and avoid irritants that trigger your eczema. In general, avoid anything that causes an itch because scratching often triggers a flare.

Common triggers for atopic dermatitis include:

  • Rough wool fabric
  • Dry skin
  • Skin infection
  • Heat and sweat
  • Stress
  • Cleaning products
  • Dust mites and pet dander
  • Mold
  • Pollen
  • Smoke from tobacco
  • Cold and dry air
  • Fragrances
  • Other irritating chemicals

Infants and children may have flares triggered by eating certain foods, such as eggs and cow's milk. Talk with your child's health care provider about identifying potential food allergies.

Once you understand what triggers your eczema, talk with your health care provider about how to manage your symptoms and prevent flares.

More Information

  • Can baby eczema be prevented?

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Aug. 05, 2022

FAQs

What is the main cause of atopic dermatitis? ›

Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is caused by a combination of immune system activation, genetics, environmental triggers and stress. Your immune system. If you have eczema, your immune system overreacts to small irritants or allergens. This overreaction can inflame your skin.

What are the causes and symptoms of eczema? ›

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) is a condition that causes dry, itchy and inflamed skin. It's common in young children but can occur at any age. Atopic dermatitis is long lasting (chronic) and tends to flare sometimes. It can be irritating but it's not contagious.

What is the symptoms of atopic dermatitis? ›

Atopic Dermatitis Symptoms

Children and adults usually have very itchy, red rashes on the back of the neck and knees and in elbow creases. You may also have small bumps and flaky skin. The rash may also develop on the face, wrists, and forearms. If you scratch, your skin can get thick, dark, and scarred.

Which body part causes eczema? ›

But eczema can arise from several factors, including your immune system, your genes, the environment, and other things that cause your skin barrier to be faulty. Still, eczema can lead to skin infections from scratching or cracking. That can break down your skin's barrier against bacteria and other germs.

What foods cause eczema? ›

Some common foods that may trigger an eczema flare-up and could be removed from a diet include:
  • citrus fruits.
  • dairy.
  • eggs.
  • gluten or wheat.
  • soy.
  • spices, such as vanilla, cloves, and cinnamon.
  • tomatoes.
  • some types of nuts.

Can atopic dermatitis be cured? ›

There's no cure, but many children find their symptoms naturally improve as they get older. The main treatments for atopic eczema are: emollients (moisturisers) – used every day to stop the skin becoming dry. topical corticosteroids – creams and ointments used to reduce swelling and redness during flare-ups.

How long does eczema last? ›

For most people, eczema is a lifelong condition that consists of occasional flare-ups. Once treated, it can take several weeks for rashes to clear up. Since these rashes develop from negative immune reactions, there's also a risk that more flare-ups will occur unless you reduce your exposure to triggers.

How do you stop eczema from spreading? ›

Most eczema treatments give you short-term relief. Your doctor can prescribe a steroid cream to stop the itch and clear your rash, or topical creams called calcineurin inhibitors like pimecrolimus (Elidel) or tacrolimus (Protopic) that protect your skin and prevent eczema outbreaks.

Can eczema go away? ›

Eczema typically develops in early childhood and in a small number of cases spontaneously resolves on its own. For everyone else, eczema is usually a lifelong skin condition. While scientists have yet to find a cure, there are treatments and ways to manage your eczema to minimize flare-ups.

How do you treat atopic dermatitis? ›

Eczema (Atopic Dermatitis) Treatment
  1. Avoid scratching the rash or skin.
  2. Relieve the itch by using a moisturizer or topical steroids. ...
  3. Keep your fingernails cut short. ...
  4. Lubricate or moisturize the skin two to three times a day using ointments such as petroleum jelly. ...
  5. Avoid anything that worsens symptoms, including.

Can eczema spread by touch? ›

Eczema isn't contagious. Even if you have an active rash, you can't pass the condition on to someone else. If you think you've gotten eczema from someone else, you likely have another skin condition. However, eczema often causes cracks in the skin, leaving it vulnerable to infection.

Is eczema a fungal infection? ›

A variety of viruses, bacteria, and fungi can cause infected eczema. The following are some of the more common microbes responsible for causing infected eczema: Staphylococcus aureus (staph infection) fungal infections, such as Candida albicans.

How serious is eczema? ›

Eczema in and of itself is not life-threatening, but if uncontrolled, it can have life-threatening complications. We can usually catch it early and manage it. However, some bacteria and viruses can cause infections in patients with eczema, leading to serious or potentially life-threatening complications.

Can eczema be caused by stress? ›

However, research highlights that stress is a significant contributor to eczema through its effects on immune response and skin barrier function, supporting the need for therapeutic strategies aimed at anxiety and stress reduction. References: 1. Eczema Symptoms & Causes | National Eczema Association.

What gets rid of eczema fast? ›

Corticosteroid creams, solutions, gels, foams, and ointments. These treatments, made with hydrocortisone steroids, can quickly relieve itching and reduce inflammation. They come in different strengths, from mild over-the-counter (OTC) treatments to stronger prescription medicines.

What diet cures eczema? ›

Anti-inflammatory diet for eczema

Anti-inflammatory diets limit dairy, whole grains, red meat, flour and sugar, but emphasize vegetables and fish. In fact, going vegan (or keeping nearly a fully plant-based diet) is also a good route to take.

What fruit helps eczema? ›

Vegetables and fruits that are high in inflammation-fighting flavonoids: Apples, broccoli, cherries, blueberries, spinach, and kale. Flavonoids have been found to help improve the overall health of a person's skin and fight problems such as inflammation (which is associated with eczema).

Are bananas good for eczema? ›

Some foods which can support eczema-prone skin include: Apples. Avocados. Bananas.

Is sun good for atopic dermatitis? ›

Most patients affected by atopic dermatitis improve during sun exposure. It has been reported that the change from a subartic/temperate to a subtropical climate for 4 weeks improved significantly skin symptoms and quality of life in children, even for 3 months after return.

Is eczema a disease? ›

Atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a non-contagious inflammatory skin condition. It is a chronic disease characterized by dry, itchy skin that can weep clear fluid when scratched. People with eczema also may be particularly susceptible to bacterial, viral, and fungal skin infections.

Can eczema spread to your private parts? ›

Eczema describes a range of skin conditions that cause itchy inflammation. When it affects the genitals, it is referred to as genital eczema. It can occur in both males and females, and lead to red, sore skin and irritation in the genital area.

Can eczema be cured naturally? ›

There is no cure for eczema, but people can often manage their symptoms with home remedies, including natural gels and oils, medicated baths, and dietary changes. If eczema is severe or does not respond to home treatments, it may be a good idea to consult a doctor.

What should you not do if you have eczema? ›

Chemicals, solvents, soaps, detergents, fragrances, ingredients in skin care products, some fabrics and smoke are things you may need to avoid with your eczema. Your healthcare provider may recommend special patch testing to see if products you use or are exposed to may be causing an allergic skin reaction.

What is the difference between eczema and dermatitis? ›

Dermatitis means inflammation of the skin. Eczema is a term used to describe a group of skin conditions in which the skin is itchy, dry, and inflamed. The terms eczema and dermatitis are often used interchangeably. But “dermatitis” is a broader term that encompasses more than eczema rashes.

What are the stages of eczema? ›

And eczema has three stages: acute, subacute, and chronic. Each eczema stage has its own distinct symptoms.

Is warm water good for eczema? ›

Does hot water make eczema worse? A hot shower can help relieve stress and aching muscles, but it's not the best choice for people with eczema. Hot water can strip your skin of the natural oils it needs to stay healthy. This can make your skin dry and lead to worse itching and irritation.

Why is eczema worse at night? ›

What causes eczema to flare at night? During the daytime, the body produces a natural anti-inflammatory called cortisol. Unfortunately, our cortisol levels drop during the night. This can leave eczema sufferers without the natural 'protection' against itchy, heated skin.

Is Vaseline good for eczema? ›

Petroleum jelly is well tolerated and works well for sensitive skin, which makes it an ideal treatment for eczema flare-ups. Unlike some products that can sting and cause discomfort, petroleum jelly has moisturizing and soothing properties that alleviate irritation, redness, and discomfort.

Do and don'ts in atopic dermatitis? ›

DOs and DON'Ts in Managing Eczema:

DO avoid triggers of the rash, including stress. DO moisturize your skin daily, even when you have no symptoms. Use an odor-free oil-based cream or ointment (not lotion), best applied just after bathing while skin is still damp. Use hypoallergenic products when possible.

How do I stop eczema itching at night? ›

How to Reduce Eczema Itch at Night (So You Can Sleep)
  1. Shower at night and moisturize before bed. ...
  2. Try cotton gloves and plastic wrap. ...
  3. Use wet dressings. ...
  4. Keep temps cool. ...
  5. Choose cotton sheets or other light, natural fibers. ...
  6. Consider sedative antihistamines.
29 Dec 2020

How do people live with atopic dermatitis? ›

5 tips from an eczema patient
  1. KNOW YOUR TRIGGERS. What triggers an itching and scratching cycle for you? ...
  2. GET REGULAR EXERCISE. Do as much as you can but know when you've reached your limit. ...
  3. TRY QIGONG. ...
  4. DO SOMETHING CREATIVE. ...
  5. FEEL FREE TO EXPLORE.
2 Jan 2018

What virus causes eczema? ›

Eczema herpeticum is a secondary viral infection usually caused by HSV (either type 1 or type 2) that concomitantly occurs with skin conditions like AD, psoriasis, eczema, irritant contact dermatitis, burns, and seborrheic dermatitis.

What are the seven causes of eczema? ›

People with eczema often have allergies or asthma along with itchy, red, or hyperpigmented skin. Eczema comes in a few other forms, too.
...
Dyshidrotic eczema can be caused by:
  • allergies.
  • damp hands and feet.
  • exposure to substances, such as nickel, cobalt, or chromium salt.
  • stress.
  • smoking tobacco products.

Is eczema an allergy? ›

Most types of eczema are not allergies. But the disease can flare up when you're around things that cause an allergic reaction. You might get hives, itching, swelling, sneezing, and a runny nose.

What are the 7 different types of eczema? ›

  • Overview.
  • Atopic Dermatitis.
  • Contact Dermatitis.
  • Dyshidrotic Eczema.
  • Neurodermatitis.
  • Nummular Eczema.
  • Seborrheic Dermatitis.
  • Stasis Dermatitis.

Can antibiotics clear up eczema? ›

Antibiotics don't help if your skin is not infected

Even so, some doctors treat eczema with antibiotics that you take by mouth (in pill or liquid form) to kill the germs. Antibiotics also don't help your itching or redness. And they don't make your eczema less severe.

What antibiotics treat infected eczema? ›

If you have an extensive area of infected eczema, you may be prescribed an antibiotic to take by mouth. This is most commonly flucloxacillin, which is usually taken for 1 week. If you're allergic to penicillin, you might be given an alternative such as clarithromycin.

Does eczema improve with age? ›

Do children outgrow eczema? For some children, eczema starts to go away by age 4. However, some children may continue to have dry, sensitive skin as they grow up. It is hard to predict which children will outgrow the condition and which ones will have eczema as adults.

How do you test for eczema allergy? ›

Skin prick test: During this test, small amounts of substances to which your child may be allergic will be placed on your child's skin. Usually, the substances are placed on the forearm or back. Next, the skin is scratched or pricked. The skin is checked for a reaction at specific times.

Can I suddenly develop eczema? ›

Eczema may improve after childhood, but it can return later on at any stage of life. Eczema can also suddenly appear for the first time in later life, for reasons that can be difficult to determine. Skin becomes drier as we get older, which can lead to roughness, scaling and itchiness.

Why is my eczema spreading? ›

There are many potential causes for eczema flare-ups, including weather changes, irritants, allergens, and water. Identifying triggers can help a person manage their eczema and reduce the symptoms. Allergic contact dermatitis.

How does dermatitis look like? ›

Rash on swollen skin that varies in color depending on your skin color. Blisters, perhaps with oozing and crusting. Flaking skin (dandruff) Thickened skin.

How do you treat eczema without medication? ›

Oatmeal can help calm inflammation that's common in eczema. It's soothing to the skin and is helpful for some people. Some people can develop an allergy from using anti-itch ointments. Apple cider vinegar may have some antibacterial properties.

Is Aloe Vera good for eczema? ›

Aloe vera is a natural moisturizer. Many people find that aloe vera gel can hydrate and soothe eczema-damaged skin. Individuals often turn to natural remedies, such as aloe vera gel, to soothe patches of eczema. Eczema, or atopic dermatitis, is a condition that causes patches of skin to become itchy and irritated.

How is atopic dermatitis transmitted? ›

Overview of Atopic Dermatitis

It is a common condition that usually begins in childhood; however, anyone can get the disease. Atopic dermatitis is not contagious, so it cannot be spread from person to person. Atopic dermatitis causes the skin to become extremely itchy.

Can atopic dermatitis spread? ›

It can spread for several reasons, depending on the type of eczema a person has. A dermatologist can help with identifying eczema types and triggers. Treating flare-ups as soon as they occur can help break the itch-scratch cycle and keep eczema from spreading.

Is atopic dermatitis autoimmune disease? ›

For the first time, a team led by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai has proven that atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema, is an immune-driven (autoimmune) disease at the molecular level.

Is atopic dermatitis a disease? ›

Atopic dermatitis, also known as eczema, is a non-contagious inflammatory skin condition. It is a chronic disease characterized by dry, itchy skin that can weep clear fluid when scratched.

Does stress cause atopic dermatitis? ›

Clinical occurrence of atopic dermatitis is often associated with psychological stress. In response to stress, upregulation of neuropeptide mediators in the brain, endocrine organs, and peripheral nervous system directly affect immune and resident cells in the skin.

How do you stop eczema from spreading? ›

Most eczema treatments give you short-term relief. Your doctor can prescribe a steroid cream to stop the itch and clear your rash, or topical creams called calcineurin inhibitors like pimecrolimus (Elidel) or tacrolimus (Protopic) that protect your skin and prevent eczema outbreaks.

How do you prevent atopic dermatitis? ›

Lifestyle and home remedies
  1. Moisturize your skin at least twice a day. ...
  2. Apply an anti-itch cream to the affected area. ...
  3. Take an oral allergy or anti-itch medication. ...
  4. Don't scratch. ...
  5. Take a daily bath or shower. ...
  6. Use a gentle, nonsoap cleanser. ...
  7. Take a bleach bath. ...
  8. Use a humidifier.
5 Aug 2022

Is eczema a fungal infection? ›

A variety of viruses, bacteria, and fungi can cause infected eczema. The following are some of the more common microbes responsible for causing infected eczema: Staphylococcus aureus (staph infection) fungal infections, such as Candida albicans.

Can eczema spread by touch? ›

Eczema isn't contagious. Even if you have an active rash, you can't pass the condition on to someone else. If you think you've gotten eczema from someone else, you likely have another skin condition. However, eczema often causes cracks in the skin, leaving it vulnerable to infection.

What virus causes eczema? ›

Eczema herpeticum is a secondary viral infection usually caused by HSV (either type 1 or type 2) that concomitantly occurs with skin conditions like AD, psoriasis, eczema, irritant contact dermatitis, burns, and seborrheic dermatitis.

Is eczema due to weak immune system? ›

Though you might be tempted to blame a weak immune system for skin flare-ups, your immune system is not at fault. Eczema is actually the result of an overreaction by your immune system. Typically harmless substances — such as pollen or pet dander — are often the source of your body's strong reaction.

How long will atopic dermatitis last? ›

Atopic dermatitis lasts a long time. You can control it by treating it, avoiding irritants, and by keeping your skin well-moisturized. In children, the condition often starts to go away around age 5 to 6, but flare-ups will often occur. In adults, the problem is generally a long-term or returning condition.

What foods help with eczema? ›

Anti-inflammatory diet for eczema

Anti-inflammatory diets limit dairy, whole grains, red meat, flour and sugar, but emphasize vegetables and fish. In fact, going vegan (or keeping nearly a fully plant-based diet) is also a good route to take.

Is atopic dermatitis serious? ›

Even though it's a common form of eczema, it's also severe and long-lasting. When you or your child have atopic dermatitis, it may improve at times; but at other times, it may get worse. In some children, symptoms may taper off as they grow up, while other children will have atopic dermatitis flares into adulthood.

Is eczema a serious disease? ›

Most children outgrow eczema. However, for adults who continue to suffer, it is a serious condition. Adult eczema is a chronic condition that involves inflamed, red, itchy patches of skin that can erupt in oozing flare-ups. Different areas of the body can be affected for adults, including face, hands and even eyelids.

Can eczema spread to your private parts? ›

Eczema describes a range of skin conditions that cause itchy inflammation. When it affects the genitals, it is referred to as genital eczema. It can occur in both males and females, and lead to red, sore skin and irritation in the genital area.

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