Causes, Treatments and Prevention of Bromhidrosis (2022)

Bromhidrosis is a chronic medical condition characterized by extreme body odor.

Excessive body odor can have a negative impact on your confidence and your life. In this article, we explain more about bromhidrosis, why you might have it and how you can treat it.

Jump to:

  • What is Bromhidrosis?
  • Regular Body Odor vs. Bromhidrosis
  • Causes of Bromhidrosis
  • Bromhidrosis Treatments

WHAT IS BROMHIDROSIS?

Bromhidrosis is a disease that occurs when the bacteria on your skin breaks down sweat and produces an abnormally offensive smell similar to onions or sulfur. Bromhidrosis body odor is more pungent and persistent than ordinary B.O.

There are two types of bromhidrosis: apocrine and eccrine. These forms of bromhidrosis differ significantly from regular body odor.

APOCRINE VS. ECCRINE BROMHIDROSIS

Bromhidrosis is typically associated with apocrine gland sweat, but can also stem from eccrine gland sweat (more on this below).

Body odor occurs when the proteins in sweat mix with bacteria on your skin. The difference between the two conditions depends on how these variables interact.

Apocrine Bromhidrosis

(Video) BROMHIDROSIS, CAUSES, DIAGNOSIS & TREATMENT

Apocrine bromhidrosis is the most common type of bromhidrosis. Apocrine sweat glands are located in the armpits or genital area.

When you have apocrine bromhidrosis, body odor is the byproduct of lipid-rich apocrine gland sweat mixing with skin bacteria. When these two ingredients come together, they produce thioalcohols — compounds that smell like sulfur, onions or raw meat. So if yourarmpit sweat smells like onions, it may be a sign of apocrine bromhidrosis.

Eccrine Bromhidrosis

Eccrine bromhidrosis is the rarer form of bromhidrosis. Eccrine sweat glands are found in the palms and soles as well as the head or torso.

Eccrine bromhidrosis happens when sweat from your eccrine glands softens the keratin on your skin. The softer the keratin is, the easier it is for bacteria to break down. This break-down process produces a stenchy odor.

But what’s the difference between bromhidrosis and regular B.O.? How do you know if you have bromhidrosis?

REGULAR BODY ODOR VS. BROMHIDROSIS

It’s easy to keep naturalbody odor under control with good hygiene habits and over-the-counter treatments like antiperspirant and deodorant. But when you have bromhidrosis, these simple solutions don’t work. You might find it hard to keep body odor at bay, even if you shower more than once a day or reapply deodorant often.

Here are a few more examples of what it’s like to have normal body odor versus bromhidrosis.

Anti-Stink TacticNormal Body Odor ResultBromhidrosis Result
ShowerEliminates B.O. completelyDoes not reduce B.O. significantly
Apply deoderant once per dayKeeps B.O. away most of the dayKeeps B.O. away for a few hours
Apply extra-strength antipersperant deoderantEliminates B.O. for extended periodsReduces B.O. for very short periods

If you’re wondering why your body odor and sweat smell like onions or cheese, there’s a good chance you have bromhidrosis.

(Video) How To Get Rid Of Abnormal Body Odor (Bromhidrosis)

Most of the time, you can detect bromhidrosis from its distinct scent. Common symptoms of this condition include:

  • Constant (but not overpowering) body odor
  • Body odor within 30 minutes of showering or bathing
  • A cheese or meat-like smell coming from your underarms or groin
  • A garlic or onion-like smell coming from your breasts, underarms or groin
  • Social anxiety due to body odor

Doctors can diagnose bromhidrosis by swabbing and testing the bacteria on your skin. Excessive amounts of Corynebacterium, Propionibacterium, Staphylococcus and Micrococcus usually indicate chronic body odor. Staphylococcus is typically the strongest-smelling bacteria.

Being able to spot the signs of bromhidrosis is a helpful first step in overcoming chronic body odor. But to solve the problem, you also need to understand the underlying cause of your condition.

CAUSES OF BROMHIDROSIS

Certain factors that can cause or exacerbate bromhidrosis include genetics, the consumption of certain foods and other medical conditions.

GENETICS

Chronic body odor can run in the family. Studies show that there is a strong correlation between the ABCC11 gene and bromhidrosis. This same gene is present in individuals with wet ear wax. So believe it or not, if you have wet ear wax, you’re more likely to have bromhidrosis.

OBESITY

Having large amounts of excess fat on your body makes you more susceptible to bromhidrosis.

Excess fat creates skin folds. These warm, dark crevices are the perfect environment for sweat and bacteria to mix and produce an odor. Because these areas can be challenging to clean, you may neglect them when you bathe or shower. Failing to cleanse and exfoliate these areas allows bacteria and sweat to fester and create a pervasive odor.

DIABETES

Sometimes bromhidrosis can be mistaken for a condition called diabetic ketoacidosis, which can occur if you have untreated diabetes. When you have diabetes, your body doesn’t produce enough insulin to regulate your metabolism. As a result, you start to break down fat which causes acids to build up in your bloodstream. This process can result in body odor and bad breath.

INTERTRIGO

Intertrigo is a rash caused by trapped moisture and sweat. Although the most common form of intertrigo is infant diaper rash, adults can also get it from lack of air circulation to their skin.

(Video) Body odour ( bromhidrosis ( Body smell ) : : Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention

When intertrigo goes untreated, bacteria thrives in moist, friction-prone areas which can lead to chronic body odor.

ERYTHRASMA

Erythrasma is a bacterial infection caused by humid, tropical climates that manifests as a pink skin rash. The bacteria that causes this rash, Corynebacterium, naturally occurs on your skin. It’s also one of the bacteria that exists in excess for those with chronic body odor.

HYPERHIDROSIS

Bacteria and sweat are key components of bromhidrosis. So if you suffer from hyperhidrosis or excessive sweating, you’re more likely to have chronic body odor as well.

If you think sweat or hyperhidrosis is contributing to your bromhidrosis, it’s best to treat hyperhidrosis first to reduce the sweat that’s affecting your body odor issue.

CONSUMING CERTAIN FOODS, LIQUIDS AND DRUGS

Your diet and oral medications can affect the smell of your sweat. When the byproducts of pungent foods like garlic, onion, cruciferous vegetables and red meat blend with sweat and bacteria, it can cause chronic body odor.

Other foods that can aggravate bromhidrosis include:

  • Alcohol
  • Tobacco
  • Fish
  • Asparagus
  • Curry

Bromhidrosis can also be a side effect of these medications:

  • Penicillin
  • Bromides

BROMHIDROSIS TREATMENTS

Thankfully, bromhidrosis is treatable. Here are some ways to mitigate excessive body odor and stop smelling like onions:

TAKE MEASURES TO REDUCE YOUR SKIN BACTERIA

Here are a few ways to keep the bacteria on your skin to a healthy minimum:

(Video) DEAR WORLD, IT’S HYPERHIDROSIS/BROMHIDROSIS AND NOT HYGIENE ISSUES #hyperhidrosisbromhidrosis

  • Use antibacterial or germicidal soap: Choose gentle liquid or cream body wash over solid soap, and avoid scented products that can worsen your B.O.
  • Shave excess body hair: Hair traps bacteria and sweat, which aggravates bromhidrosis.
  • Remove or wash sweaty clothes immediately: This gives bacteria less time to break down sweat.
  • Take regular warm baths or showers: Warm water can help kill the bacteria on your skin. Shower twice a day and pay close attention to extra sweaty areas, especially on a hot day.
  • Wear anti-odor garments: Most anti-odor clothing features silver or copper, but for a more healthy and natural alternative, look for shirts made with hydrogen peroxide, such as the Thompson Tee Premium Anti-Odor Undershirt.
  • Use extra-strength or prescription deodorant: Over-the-counter products might not cut it. Consult your doctor or dermatologist to explore prescription-strength deodorants and solutions.

CHANGE YOUR DIET

Avoid foods that promote pungent, odiferous sweat secretions to reduce the effects of chronic body odor. Try these odor-fighting foods instead:

  • Lemons, oranges and grapefruits
  • Green leafy vegetables like kale and spinach
  • Fresh herbs
  • Whole grains

Read more: How to Get Rid of Body Odor: 5 Quick, Natural Solutions

KEEP YOUR SKIN DRY

Damp skin is a breeding ground for odor-causing bacteria. If you have a condition like hyperhidrosis, you can manage bromhidrosis by taking the appropriate steps to reduce excessive sweat first.

MEDICAL TREATMENTS FOR BROMHIDROSIS

Bromhidrosis is also treatable with antibiotics, laser hair removal and sweat gland removal surgery.

Topical antibiotics (or creams and gels containing antibiotics) work by destroying odor-causing bacteria on the skin before they have a chance to break down and release a foul stench. Two common antibiotics for bromhidrosis are clinamycin and erythomycin - talk to your doctor about getting a prescription for these treatments.

Electric hair removal (electrolysis) is another medical treatment for bromhidrosis. For a temporary solution, consider shaving or waxing your underarms or groin area regularly.

Sweat gland removal surgery should only be considered as a last resort, as it's highly invasive and could result in very serious long-term side effects. Don't explore this option until you've exhausted all other non-invasive treatment methods.

WEAR AN ANTI-ODOR UNDERSHIRT

The Thompson Tee Premium Anti-Odor Undershirt is infused with Odor Shield™ technology, a natural non-toxic hydrogen peroxide-based solution that eliminates 99.9% of odor causing bacteria in the fabric. Pair it with the above treatment options for best results to reduce the effects of bromhidrosis.

Try a crewneck or V-neck anti-odor undershirt risk-free today!

(Video) Do you smell that? Body Odor (Bromhidrosis)

Resources:

  1. https://www.healthline.com/health/bromhidrosis
  2. https://www.sweathelp.org/where-do-you-sweat/other-sweating/sweat-and-odor.html
  3. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eccrine_sweat_gland
  4. https://www.racgp.org.au/afp/2013/may/hyperhidrosis-and-bromhidrosis/
  5. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2731057/
  6. https://www.healthline.com/health/sudden-change-in-body-odor#causes
  7. https://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/guide/intertrigo-symptoms-causes-treatment-risk_factors_#1
  8. https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1072342-overview
  9. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/173478#treatments
  10. https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/dermatologic-disorders/sweating-disorders/bromhidrosis
  11. https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2015/03/31/396573607/meet-the-bacteria-that-make-a-stink-in-your-pits
  12. https://www.bustle.com/articles/177764-11-weird-causes-of-body-odor-what-to-do-about-it

FAQs

What is the cause of bromhidrosis? ›

Excessive secretion from either apocrine or eccrine glands that becomes malodorous on bacterial breakdown is the predominant cause of bromhidrosis. Inadequate hygiene and medical or dermatologic conditions associated with hyperhidrosis or overgrowth of bacteria may further contribute to its development.

What is bromhidrosis treatment? ›

Therapeutic modalities for bromhidrosis include topical antibacterial agents, antiperspirants, botulinum toxin injections, lasers, microwaves, and invasive treatments, including liposuction curettage and upper thoracic sympathectomy.

How do you prevent bromhidrosis? ›

Because bromhidrosis is triggered by the action of bacteria on the skin, frequent washing may be enough to neutralize the bacteria. Washing at least daily with soap and water may help. If the smell is localized to the armpits, for example, you can focus your cleansing efforts there.

What are the causes and prevention of body odour? ›

Body odor is caused by a mix of bacteria and sweat on your skin. Your body odor can change due to hormones, the food you eat, infection, medications or underlying conditions like diabetes. Prescription-strength antiperspirants or medications may help.

What medications can cause bromhidrosis? ›

[1][2] Here is a list of several prescription pain medications that can cause excessive sweating: Opiates like: Hydrocodone/Vicodin, Morphine, Oxycodone/Roxicodone, Fentanyl/Duragesic, Ultra/Tramadol. NSAIDs like: Toradol/Ketorolac, Celebrex, Relafen/Nabumetone. Other pain medications: Marinol (made from cannabinoids)

What are five causes of body odour? ›

Causes of body odour
  • exercise.
  • hot weather.
  • hormonal changes.
  • being overweight.
  • having a condition like diabetes, kidney disease or liver disease.
  • certain types of medicine, such as antidepressants.

What is the treatment of odor? ›

If you're concerned about sweating and body odor, the solution may be simple: an antiperspirant or deodorant. Antiperspirant. Antiperspirants contain aluminium-based compounds that temporarily block sweat pores, thereby reducing the amount of sweat that reaches your skin.

What is the best medicine for body odor? ›

These may include:
  • Aluminum chloride: A doctor or dermatologist may recommend prescription antiperspirants containing aluminum chloride. ...
  • Botulinum toxin (Botox): A medical professional may recommend Botox treatment for people who sweat excessively.

How can I permanently prevent body odor? ›

Body Odor Prevention
  1. Take a bath or shower every day.
  2. Wash your clothes regularly and make sure to wear clean ones.
  3. Try to avoid strong-smelling foods that may seep through your pores.
  4. Put on an antiperspirant at bedtime. ...
  5. Many antiperspirant preparations also contain a deodorant, which helps to mask the smell.
10 Sept 2020

What is the main cause of body odor? ›

Sweating and body odor are caused by sweat glands in your body. The two main types of sweat glands are eccrine glands and apocrine glands. Eccrine glands occur over most of your body and open directly onto the surface of the skin.

What food causes body odor? ›

6 foods that cause body odor, according to a registered dietitian
  • Allium vegetables. Allium vegetables are specific types of veggies that are high in sulfur-containing compounds. ...
  • Asparagus. ...
  • Cruciferous vegetables. ...
  • Strong spices like cumin, cayenne, and horseradish. ...
  • Red meat. ...
  • Alcohol.
24 Sept 2021

What causes most body odor? ›

Summary. Body odor is caused by bacteria breaking down the sweat from the apocrine glands in your armpits, groin, and pubic area. You may be more prone to body odor if you are overweight, eat certain foods, have certain health conditions, or are under stress. Genetics may also play a role.

What bacteria causes body odor? ›

The culprit is an enzyme called C-T lyase, found in the bacterium Staphylococcus hominis, which dwells in human armpits. These bacteria feed on odorless chemicals released in sweat, which the enzyme then converts into thioalcohols—a pungent compound responsible for the offending smell.

What does Bromhidrosis smell like? ›

Apocrine bromhidrosis is the most common form of bromhidrosis in adults and is localised, usually to the armpits and/or anogenital area. Eccrine bromhidrosis presents as a generalised malodour, and may be associated with bad breath (halitosis), anogenital odour, and smelly urine.

How do you get rid of Bromodosis? ›

Most cases of bromodosis can be treated right at home with careful, regular foot care.
  1. Wash feet every day with an antibacterial soap and a brush or washcloth. ...
  2. Keep toenails trimmed short and clean under the nails each day.
  3. Use a pumice stone or foot file to remove hard, dead skin from your feet.

Can a hormone imbalance cause body odor? ›

Hormone imbalances and body odor often go together. Dips in estrogen can trigger hot flashes and night sweats, meaning you simply sweat more, which in turn can result in more odor. This is also a time of life filled with high levels of anxiety or stress, which can make you sweat, too.

What food makes your sweat smell good? ›

The 6 Best Foods for Smelling (and Tasting) Like a Million Bucks
  • Truffle Oil.
  • Pineapple.
  • Celery.
  • White Fish.
  • Fresh Herbs.
  • Yogurt.
21 Jun 2017

What antibiotics treat body odor? ›

Use of topical antibiotics, such as clindamycin, erythromycin, and benzoyl peroxide, as well as antiseptic soaps, may yield clinical benefit by limiting the growth of the contributory bacteria that decompose apocrine secretions, liberating fatty acids that have peculiar smells.

How can I treat body odor at home? ›

7 WAYS TO GET RID OF BODY ODOR
  1. WEAR BREATHABLE FABRICS OR AN ANTI-ODOR UNDERSHIRT. ...
  2. WASH WITH ALL-NATURAL ANTIBACTERIAL BATH SOAP. ...
  3. ALWAYS DRY OFF THOROUGHLY. ...
  4. USE PROBIOTIC DEODORANT. ...
  5. UPDATE YOUR LAUNDRY ROUTINE. ...
  6. APPLY APPLE CIDER VINEGAR, LEMON JUICE OR WITCH HAZEL. ...
  7. WATCH WHAT YOU EAT.

What kills the smell of body odor? ›

Showering a few times a week, especially after you exercise or do other activities that make you sweat, may be enough to rid you of body odor without drying out or irritating your skin. After your shower or bath, apply an antiperspirant and deodorant.

Can body odor be removed permanently? ›

Some individuals may be more pungent than others due to various lifestyle factors like diet and exercise, as well as factors beyond our control, like genetics and medical conditions. So, is it possible to remove body odor permanently? The short answer is no.

Is there a supplement for body odor? ›

Magnesium and zinc can help reduce body smells.

Can probiotics stop body odor? ›

When activated by sweat the integrated live probiotic bacteria is said to reduce body odor, encourage cell renewal and improve the immune system.

Can baking soda remove body odor? ›

If the deodorant doesn't work, consider another old-fashioned remedy you haven't tried: baking soda. It changes the pH of the armpit and helps to keep it dry, and both of those things help get rid of odor.

Can eggs cause body odor? ›

Garlic, onions,egg, and cruciferous vegetables — such as broccoli and cauliflower — can cause odour,” Dr Anupam Dey, a Kolkata-based dietician says. So, if you are eating high levels of certain foods, foul-smelling compounds they contain may be excreted through your sweat glands to give an unpleasant odour.

What is body odor medically called? ›

Search for health conditions. Body odour is the unpleasant smell produced by bacteria on the skin breaking down the acids in your sweat. Anyone who has reached puberty can have it. Self-care can prevent it.

How is bromhidrosis diagnosed? ›

Bromhidrosis is generally diagnosed when noticeable body odor has a negative effect on an individual's self-view, social interactions, or quality of life. Bromhidrosis is divided into apocrine bromhidrosis and eccrine bromhidrosis. The most common site for apocrine bromhidrosis is the axilla.

Is bromhidrosis contagious? ›

On the other hand, underarm odor is not contagious, so this condition cannot be spread by direct contact or by sharing clothes with an infected person. People with this disease are due to the body has overactive sweat glands.

Do Dermatologists treat body odor? ›

At HK Dermatology in San Juan Capistrano, California, Dr. Klein and our team of providers help men and women struggling with excessive sweating and body odor. Many of our patients can stop body odor and excessive sweat in their tracks with nonsurgical, FDA-cleared miraDry® treatments.

What is the disease that causes body odor? ›

Trimethylaminuria is a disorder in which the body is unable to break down trimethylamine, a chemical compound that has a pungent odor. Trimethylamine has been described as smelling like rotting fish, rotting eggs, garbage, or urine.

What is the main cause of body odor? ›

Sweating and body odor are caused by sweat glands in your body. The two main types of sweat glands are eccrine glands and apocrine glands. Eccrine glands occur over most of your body and open directly onto the surface of the skin.

How do you permanently treat body odor? ›

Body Odor Prevention
  1. Take a bath or shower every day.
  2. Wash your clothes regularly and make sure to wear clean ones.
  3. Try to avoid strong-smelling foods that may seep through your pores.
  4. Put on an antiperspirant at bedtime. ...
  5. Many antiperspirant preparations also contain a deodorant, which helps to mask the smell.
10 Sept 2020

Can a hormone imbalance cause body odor? ›

Hormone imbalances and body odor often go together. Dips in estrogen can trigger hot flashes and night sweats, meaning you simply sweat more, which in turn can result in more odor. This is also a time of life filled with high levels of anxiety or stress, which can make you sweat, too.

What bacteria on the skin causes body odor? ›

Some common skin bacteria that produce body odor include members of Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus and Cutibacterium genera. The biochemistry behind the microbial conversion of sweat to malodorous products is still not completely understood.

What does bromhidrosis smell like? ›

Apocrine bromhidrosis is the most common form of bromhidrosis in adults and is localised, usually to the armpits and/or anogenital area. Eccrine bromhidrosis presents as a generalised malodour, and may be associated with bad breath (halitosis), anogenital odour, and smelly urine.

How do you stop body odor naturally? ›

10 Natural Remedies For Treating Body Odour
  1. Wash Your Body Regularly. Take a bath regularly. ...
  2. Apply Coconut Oil on Your Skin. ...
  3. Rub Lemon on Your Armpits. ...
  4. Eat Fenugreek (Methi) Seeds Regularly. ...
  5. Use Neem Leaves Paste. ...
  6. Try Tomato Juice For Body Odour. ...
  7. Drink Adequate Water. ...
  8. Wash Your Underarms With Baking Soda.
21 Jun 2018

What food makes your sweat smell good? ›

The 6 Best Foods for Smelling (and Tasting) Like a Million Bucks
  • Truffle Oil.
  • Pineapple.
  • Celery.
  • White Fish.
  • Fresh Herbs.
  • Yogurt.
21 Jun 2017

What antibiotics treat body odor? ›

Use of topical antibiotics, such as clindamycin, erythromycin, and benzoyl peroxide, as well as antiseptic soaps, may yield clinical benefit by limiting the growth of the contributory bacteria that decompose apocrine secretions, liberating fatty acids that have peculiar smells.

What kind of doctor treats body odor? ›

You're likely to start by seeing your primary care doctor. In some cases when you call to set up an appointment, you may be referred to a specialist in skin diseases (dermatologist).

What is the best body wash for body odor? ›

The 17 Best Soaps & Body Washes for Body Odor in 2022
  1. American Crew Deodorant Body Wash. ...
  2. Botanic Hearth Tea Tree Body Wash. ...
  3. Defense Everyday Original Soap. ...
  4. Defense Soap Body Wash Shower Gel with Natural Tea Tree Oil. ...
  5. Dial Antibacterial White Soap. ...
  6. Dial for Men Odor Armor Antibacterial Soap. ...
  7. Dove Men+Care Extra Fresh Body Bar.

Does liver cause body odor? ›

Some metabolic diseases can cause a distinctive body odor, particularly in their later stages. These include diabetes, as well as advanced kidney and liver disease.

Can thyroid problems cause body odor? ›

Occasionally, an overactive thyroid can also cause body odor. This is because the patient tends to sweat excessively due to the hyper-functioning thyroid gland. This condition can also be ruled out by physical examination and blood studies.

Does stress cause body odor? ›

Your underarms secrete approximately 30 times more sweat when you're under stress than when at rest. Sweat from your apocrine glands tends to be thicker and richer in proteins and lipids. The fats and nutrients in this type of sweat combine with the bacteria that live on your skin, resulting in body odor.

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