DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (2022)

Table of Contents

1. INTRODUCTION to DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER

Design of shell and tube exchanger: A shell and tube heat exchanger is one of the most popular types of exchangers due to its flexibility. In this type, there are two fluids with different temperatures, one of them flow through tubes and another flow-through shell. Heat is transferred from one fluid to another through the tube walls, either from the tube side to the shell side or vice versa. This system handles fluids at different pressures; higher pressure fluid is typically directed through tubes, and lower pressure fluid is circulated through a shell side.

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (1)

Fig 1: Shell and Tube Heat Exchanger

2. CONSTRUCTION DETAILS

2.1 Shell

The shell is constructed either from pipe up to 24 inches or rolled and welded plate metal. For reasons of economy, low carbon steel is standard, but other materials suitable for extreme temperatures or corrosion resistance are often specified. Using commonly available shell pipe to 24-inch diameter reduces cost and ease of manufacturing, partly because they are generally more perfectly round than rolled and welded shells. Roundness and consistent shell inner diameter are necessary to minimize the space between the baffle outside edge and the shell, as excessive space allows fluid bypass and reduces performance.

In applications where the fluid velocity for the nozzle diameter is high, an impingement plate is specified to distribute the fluid evenly to the tubes and prevent fluid-induced erosion, cavitation, and vibration. An impingement plate can be installed inside the shell, eliminating the need to install a full tube bundle, which would provide a less available surface. The impingement plate can be installed in a domed area (either by reducing coupling or a fabricated dome) above the shell. This style allows a full tube count and therefore maximizes utilization of shell space.

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (2)

Fig 2: Impingement Plate in Tube Layout

2.2 Channels (Heads)

The channel type is selected based on the application.Most channels can be removed for access to the tubes. The most commonly used channel type is the bonnet. It is used for services that do not require frequent removal of the channel for inspection or cleaning. The removable cover channel can be either flanged or welded to the tube sheet. The removable cover permits access to the channel and tubes for inspection or cleaning without removing the tube side piping.

The rear channel is often selected to match the front channel. For example, a heat exchanger with a bonnet at the front head (B channel) will often have a bonnet at the rear head (M channel) and be designated as BEM. Pass partitions are required in channels of heat exchangers with multiple tube passes. The pass partition plates direct the tube side fluid through multiple passes.

2.3 Tubes

Tubes are generally made seamless or welded. Seamless tubing is produced in an extrusion process; welded tubing is produced by rolling a strip into a cylinder and welding the seam. Tubes are made from low carbon steel, stainless steel, titanium, Inconel, Copper, etc. Standard tube diameters of 5/8 inch, 3/4 inch, and 1 inch are preferably used to design compact heat exchangers. Tube thickness should be maintained to withstand:

1) Pressure on the inside and outside of the tube

2) The temperature on both the sides

3) Thermal stress due to the differential expansion of the shell and the tube bundle

4) Corrosive nature of both the shell-side and the tube-side fluid.

The tube thickness is expressed in terms of BWG and true outside diameter (OD). Tube lengths of 6, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 feet are commonly used. Longer tube reduces shell diameter at the expense of higher shell pressure drop.Tubes of larger diameter are sometimes used either to facilitate mechanical cleaning or to achieve lower pressure drop. A maximum number of tubes in the shell increase turbulence, which increases the heat transfer rate. Finned tubes are also used when fluid with low heat transfer coefficient flows in the shell side.

2.4 Tube Sheet

Tube sheets are made from a round flat piece of metal with holes drilled for the tube ends in precise location and pattern relative to one another. Generally, the tube sheet material is the same as the tube material. Tubes are appropriately attached to the tube sheet, so the fluid on the shell side is prevented from mixing with the fluid on the tube side. The tubes are inserted through the holes in the tube sheets and held firmly in place either by welding or mechanical or hydraulic expansion. A rolled joint is the common term for a tube to tube sheet joint resulting from a mechanical expansion of the tube against the tube sheet. Holes are drilled in the tube sheet generally in either of two patterns, triangular or square.

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (3)

Fig 3: Tube sheet

(Video) Water Bath Heater Design

2.5 Tube Pitch

The distance between the centres of the tube hole is called the tube pitch; it is typically taken as 1.25 times the outside diameter of the tubes. The minimum value is restricted to 1.25 because the tube-sheet ligament (a ligament is the portion of material between two neighbouring tube holes) may become too weak for proper rolling of the tubes into the tube sheet. Other tube pitches are used to reduce the shell side pressure drop and control the shell side fluid’s velocity as it flows across the tube bundle. Triangular pitch provides higher heat transfer and compactness. Square pitch facilitates mechanical cleaning of the outside of the tubes.

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Fig 4: Types of Tube Pitch

2.6 Baffles

Baffles serve the following functions:

1) Support the tubes during assembly and operation

2) Prevent vibration from flow-induced eddies and maintain the tube spacing

3) Direct the flow of fluid in the desired pattern through the shell side.

A segment, called the baffle cut, is cut away to permit the fluid to flow parallel to the tube axis as it flows from one baffle space to another. The spacing between baffles is called the baffle pitch. The baffle pitch and the baffle cut determine the cross-flow velocity, and so the rate of heat transfer and the pressure drop.

The orientation of the baffle cut is essential for the heat exchanger installed horizontally. When the shell side heat transfer is sensible heating or cooling with no phase change, the baffle cut should be horizontal. This causes the fluid to follow an up-and-down path and prevents stratification with warmer fluid at the top of the shell and cooler fluid at the bottom of the shell. For shell-side condensation, the baffle cut for segmental baffles is vertical to allow the condensate to flow towards the outlet without significant liquid holdup by the baffle. For shell-side boiling, the baffle cut may be either vertical or horizontal, depending on the service.

For most liquid applications, the cut areas represent 20 to 25% of the shell diameter.

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Fig 5: The orientation of Horizontal and Vertical Baffles

2.7 Tie Rods and Spacers

Tie rods are used to hold the baffle in place with spacers, which are pieces of tubing or pipe placed to maintain the selected baffle spacing. The tie rods are screwed into the stationary tube sheet and extend the bundle’s length to the last baffle. Tie rods and spacers may also be used as a sealing device to block bypass paths due to pass partition lanes or the clearance between the shell and the tube bundle. The minimum number of tie rods and spacers depends on the shell’s diameter and the size of the tie rod and spacers.

3. DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER: CODES AND STANDARDS

The objectives of code rules and standards are to achieve minimum requirements for safe construction and provide public protection by defining those materials, design, fabrication, and inspection requirements; ignoring this may increase operating hazards. Following are some mechanical design standards and pressure design codes used in heat exchanger design are:

1) TEMA standards (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturer Association., 1998)

2) HEI standards (Heat Exchanger Institute, 1980)

3) API (American Petroleum Institute)

4) ASME (American Society of Mechanical Engineers)

4. TEMA DESIGNATIONS

To understand the shell and tube heat exchanger’s design and operation, it is important to know the vocabulary and terminology used to describe them. This vocabulary is defined in terms of letters and diagrams. The first letter describes the front header type, the second letter the shell type, and the third letter the rear header type. For example, BEM, CFU, and AES.

TEMA has classified the front head channel, and bonnet types as given the letters (A, B, C, N, D), and the shell is classified according to the nozzles locations for the inlet and outlet. There is a type of shell configuration (E, F, G, H, J, K, X). Similarly, the rear head is classified (L, M, N, P, S, T, U, W).

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (6)

Fig 6: TEMA Designation

5. GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

5.1 Fluid Allocation

  • High-pressure the stream should be located on the tube side.
  • The corrosivefluid is placed on the tube side.
  • Stream exhibiting the highest fouling should be located on the tube side.
  • More viscous fluid should be located on the shell side.
  • Lower the flow rate stream should be placed on the shell side.
  • Consider finned tubes when the shell side coefficient is less than 30% of the tube side coefficient.
  • Do not use finned tubes when shell-side fouling is high.
  • Stream with a lower heat transfer coefficient goes on the shell side.
  • Toxic fluid should be placed on the tube side.

5.2 Shell and Tube Velocity

High velocities will yield high heat transfer coefficients but also a high-pressure drop and cause erosion. The velocity must be high enough to prevent any suspended solids settling, but not so high as to cause corrosion. High velocities will reduce fouling. Plastic inserts are sometimes used to reduce erosion at the tube inlet. Typical design velocities are given below:

LIQUIDS

(Video) EPCM's Indirect Water Bath Heater

Tube-side process fluid: 1 to 2 m/s

Shell-side: 0.3 to 1/m/s

VAPORS

For vapours, the velocity used will depend on the operating pressure and fluid density; the lower values in the range given below will apply to molecular weight materials.

Vacuum: 50 to 70 m/s

Atmospheric pressure: 10 to 30 m/s

High pressure: 5 to 10 m/s

5.3 Stream Temperature

The closer the temperature approach used (the difference between the outlet temperature of one stream and the inlet temperature of the other stream), the larger the heat transfer area required for a given duty. The optimum value will depend on the application and can only be determined by making an economic analysis of alternative designs. As a general guide, the greater temperature diff should be at least 20oC and the least temperature diff 5 to 7oC for cooler using cooling water and 3 to 5oC using refrigerated brine. The maximum temperature rise in recirculated cooling water is limited to around 30oC. Care should be taken to ensure that cooling media temperatures are kept well above the freezing point of the process materials. When heat exchange is between process fluids for heat recovery, the optimum approach temperatures will typically not be lower than 20oC.

5.4 Pressure Drop

The value suggested below can be used as a general guide and usually give designs near the optimum.

LIQUIDS

Viscosity<1 mN s/m2, ΔP=35 kN/m2

Viscosity=1 to 10mN s/m2, ΔP= 50-70 kN/m2

GAS AND VAPORS

High vacuum: 0.4-0.8 kN/m2

Medium vacuum: 0.1 x absolute pressure

1 to 2 bar: 0.5 x system gauge pressure

Above 10 bar: 0.1 x system gauge pressure

When a high-pressure drop is utilized, care must be taken to ensure that the resulting high fluid velocity does not cause erosion or flow-induced tube vibration

6. DESIGN PROCEDURE: (KERN METHOD)

  • Obtain Physical properties for both the fluids.
  • Heat load, Q = m*Cp*∆t
  • Calculate LMTD (Log Mean Temperature Difference)

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (7)

  • DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (8)

Where,

T1, T2 = Inlet and Outlet temperatures of hot fluid

t1, t2 = Inlet and Outlet temperatures of cold fluid

  • Determine temperature correction factor FT ([1] page 828-833 Figs. 18-23). FT normally should be greater than 0.75 for the steady operation of the exchangers
  • True Temperature Difference

∆t = FT*∆TLMTD

  • Assume a reasonable value of the overall heat transfer coefficient Ud (assumed). The value of Ud (assumed) concerning the process hot and cold fluids can be taken from the book ([1] page 840 Table 8.)
  • The total surface area of tubes,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (9)

  • The surface area of one tube,

A’= π* do *L

Where,

do = Tube outside diameter

L = Length of tube

  • Number of Tubes,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (10)

(Video) Front End Engineering Design | FEED | PIPING MANTRA | BASIC ENGINEERING |

  • The baffle spacing is usually chosen to be within 20 % -100% of the shell inside diameter.
  • Clearance, C = Pt – do

Where,

Pt = Pitch

6.1 Shell Side Calculations

  • Shell Area,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (11)

  • Mass velocity,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (12)

Where,

Ms = Fluid flow on the shell side

Ds = Shell inside diameter

  • Caloric Temperature (find physical properties at this temperature),

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (13)

  • Equivalent diameter for square pitch

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (14)

  • Calculate Reynolds Number,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (15)

  • Find JHfrom the graph between Re and JH([1] page 838). Using that value calculate Shell side heat transfer Coefficient ho,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (16)

Where,

k = thermal conductivity

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (17)= dynamic viscosity of water fluid

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (18)= shell fluid dynamic viscosity at the average temperature

De= equivalent diameter of shell side

C = specific heat of the shell side fluid

6.2 Tube Side Calculations

  • Flow Area,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (19)

  • Mass velocity,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (20)

Where,

Mt= Fluid flow on the tube side

  • Calculate Reynolds Number,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (21)

  • Find JHfrom the graph between Re and JH([1] page 834). Using that value calculate tube side heat transfer coefficient hi

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (22)

Where,

k = thermal conductivity

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (23)= dynamic viscosity of water fluid

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (24) = tube fluid dynamic viscosity at the average temperature

di = inside diameter of tube side

C = specific heat of the tube side fluid

(Video) Indirect bath heater Design - API 12K |Design Hub|Oil & Gas |

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (25)

  • Calculate the tube outside heat transfer coefficient,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (26)

Where,

Ro= outside dirt coefficient (fouling factor)

Ri= inside dirt coefficient (fouling factor)

  • Check this condition for accurate design,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (27)

6.3 Pressure Drop Calculations

  • Shell Side

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (28)

Where,

ΔPs pressure drop for shell side

N+1= number of crosses = Tube length / Baffle spacing

Ǿs= viscosity correction factor for shell-side fluid

f = Friction factor

  • Tube Side

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (29)

Where,

ΔPt = pressure drop for tube side

n = number of passes

L = length of the tube

Ǿt= viscosity correction factor for tube side fluid

f = Friction factor

  • Return pressure loss (due to change in the flow direction of the tube side fluid)

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (30)

Where,

s = Specific gravity of the fluid

g = acceleration due to gravity

n = number of passes

v2/2g = velocity head

  • Total tube side Pressure,

DESIGN OF SHELL AND TUBE HEAT EXCHANGER - EPCM Holdings (31)

7. REFERENCES

[1] D. Q. Kern, “Process Heat Transfer”, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Int. ed. 1965.

[2] Thulukkanam Kuppan, “Heat Exchanger Design Handbook”, First Edition, Marcel-Dekker, (2000).

[3] Saunders, E. A. D. (1988) Heat Exchangers “Selection, Design, and Construction”, Longman Scientific and Technical. DOI: 10.1016/0378-3820(89)90046-5

(Video) Video-Presentation on Refinery Relocation Project By Rafiq Khadimally PMP

[4] NPTEL – Chemical Engineering – Chemical Engineering Design – II

[5] R.K. Sinnott, Coulson & Richardson’s Chemical Engineering Design, Volume 6, 3rd Edition, Butterworth-Heinemann

About EPCM

FAQs

What are the design parameters of shell and tube heat exchanger? ›

There are certain process parameters which must be fixed. For example, process fluid flow rate, inlet / outlet temperature, operating and design pressure values, maximum allowable pressure drop etc. These parameters are fixed inputs to our heat exchanger design calculations and they are also the constraints.

What are the design considerations of heat exchanger? ›

GENERAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS

More viscous fluid should be located on the shell side. Lower the flow rate stream should be placed on the shell side. Consider finned tubes when the shell side coefficient is less than 30% of the tube side coefficient. Do not use finned tubes when shell-side fouling is high.

How do you model a shell and tube heat exchanger? ›

And open the material browser. Under the built in tab. Choose err and add the material to the model

What are the components of shell and tube heat exchanger? ›

The components of a shell and tube heat exchangers include the shell, shell cover, tubes, channel, channel cover, tube sheet, baffles, and nozzles. In the shell and tube heat exchanger process, one fluid flows through the tubes while the other fluid flows through the shell.

How do I calculate heat exchanger size? ›

The main basic Heat Exchanger equation is:
  1. Q = U x A x ΔTm = The log mean temperature difference ΔTm is:
  2. ΔTm = (T1 – t2) – (T2 – t1)
  3. = °F. Where:
  4. T1 = Inlet tube side fluid temperature; t2 = Outlet shell side fluid temperature;
  5. ln (T1 – t2) (T2 – t1)

What is design pressure of heat exchanger? ›

There are two types of P&F heat exchangers: gasketed and welded. The gasketed type is the cheapest. It is usually limited to a design pressure of 25 bar g and a design temperature of 185°C.

What are the benefits of using shell and tube type heat exchangers? ›

These advantages consist of the following:
  • Easy maintenance and repair.
  • They have no dimension limit.
  • They can be used in all applications.
  • They are resistant to thermal shocks.
  • They have a very flexible and steady design.
  • They can be designed and manufactured to handle extremely high pressures.
5 May 2021

What are shell and tube heat exchangers used for? ›

Shell and tube heat exchanger is used in various industrial process applications because they can perform tasks such as: Removal of process heat and feed water preheating. Cooling of hydraulic and lube oil. Cooling of turbine, compressor, and engine.

What are the unresolved problems in heat exchanger design? ›

1 The unresolved problems in heat transfer are: flow induced tube vibration, fouling, mixture boiling, flow distribution in two-phase flow and detailed turbulence flow modelling.

How do you build a heat exchanger? ›

Homemade "Copper & Steel" Heat Exchanger! -for heating (& cooling ...

What is heat transfer simulation? ›

The Heat transfer simulation type allows the calculation of the temperature distribution and heat flux in solids under thermal loads (for example, convection and radiation). Both steady-state and transient simulations are supported.

Which heat exchanger design is the most efficient? ›

Plate exchanger is the most efficient due to turbulent flow on both sides. High heat-transfer coefficient and high turbulence due to even flow distribution are important. However, a plate heat exchanger regenerator is restricted to low viscosities.

What is the working principle of heat exchanger? ›

Heat exchanger functions by transferring heat from higher to lower temperatures. Heat can thus be transferred from the hot fluid to the cold fluid if a hot fluid and a cold fluid are separated by a heat-conducting surface.

How many tubes are in a tube and shell heat exchanger? ›

waste heat boiler in power plant gas turbine are shell & tube type heat exchanger are also larger size and having 5000-12000 number of tubes.

What is design and selection criteria for heat exchanger? ›

Main Criteria for Heat Exchanger Sizing and Selection

For a gasketed plate heat exchanger, the gaskets must be compatible with the fluids in the unit. Thermal fluid characteristics and product mix. If the heating or cooling fluid is susceptible to fouling, a corrosion resistant material may be needed. Location.

What is the most common size of tube in heat exchanger? ›

Tubes may range in diameter from 12.7 mm (0.5 in) to 50.8 mm (2 in), but 19.05 mm (0.75 in) and 25.4 mm (1 in) are the most common sizes.

How do I calculate Btu for heat exchanger? ›

The heat transfer formula is Q = M x Cp x ΔT. - ΔT is the temperature difference between entering and leaving fluid (°F) For water, with a Cp of 1 Btu/lb/°F and 8.34 lb/gal x 60 minutes/hr = 500.4 lb/hr per GPM, the heat transfer formula simplifies to Btu/hr = GPM x 500 x ΔT.

Why is design pressure 3.5 kg cm2? ›

Minimum design pressure for equipment connected to flare should be atleast 3.5 kg/cm2g, since even the operating pressure is less, during the relief, it should be able to discharge the content to flare system which will have some back up pressure (atleast 0.5 to 2 kg/cm2g).

How is design pressure calculated? ›

Design pressure= Pump shut off head +normal operating pressure of suction vessel+ head between the tangential line of the suction vessel and the centerline of the pump impeller. Pump shut-off head can be calculated as Maximum suction pressure + 1.25 x Normal differential pressure.

What is 2/3 rule in heat exchanger? ›

The “two-thirds rule” from API RP 521 states: For relatively low-pressure equipment, complete tube failure is not a viable contingency when the design pressure of the low-pressure side is equal to or greater than two-thirds the design pressure of the high-pressure side.

What are the limitations of shell and tube heat exchanger? ›

Heat exchange effectiveness is less as compared to plate type cooler. Cleaning and maintenance is troublesome since a tube cooler requires enough leeway toward one side to expel the tube nest.

What material is made of shell in a tube type heat exchanger? ›

The shell is constructed either from pipe or rolled plate metal. For economic reasons, steel is the most commonly used material, and when applications involving extreme temperatures and corrosion resistance, others metals or alloys are specified.

Why shell and tube heat exchanger is used in oil refinery? ›

In heat exchanger, Shell and tube heat exchanger is the most utilizable exchanger which used for transfer the heat from one medium of fluid by another fluid medium through convection. In oil & gas refinery, exchange of heat is very necessary to complete the process to produce desired product in a safe manner.

What is the best material for a heat exchanger? ›

Generally, the two most commonly selected materials for heat exchangers are aluminium and copper. Both metals have the optimum thermal properties and corrosion resistance to make them ideal choices, with most of the differences being application-specific.

What are the applications of heat exchangers? ›

Heat exchangers are used in many engineering applications, such as refrigeration, heating and airconditioning systems, power plants, chemical processing systems, food processing systems, automobile radiators, and waste heat recovery units.

How many types of heat exchangers are there? ›

There are three primary classifications of heat exchangers according to their flow arrangement. In parallel-flow heat exchangers, the two fluids enter the exchanger at the same end, and travel in parallel to one another to the other side.

What is the fouling factor? ›

The fouling factor represents the theoretical resistance to heat flow due to a build-up of a layer of dirt or other fouling substance on the tube surfaces of the heat exchanger, but they are often overstated by the end user in an attempt to minimise the frequency of cleaning.

What causes fouling in heat exchangers? ›

Biological fouling is caused by the growth of organisms, such as algae, within the fluid that deposit onto the surfaces of the heat exchanger. While outside the direct control of heat exchanger designers, it can be influenced by the choice of material.

What is the unit of fouling factor? ›

Hence the SI unit of fouling factor is m².°C/W. In FPS system: In the FPS system, the unit of the convective heat transfer coefficient is Btu/hr.ft².°F. Therefore unit of fouling factor is given by, Fouling factor=1h−1Btuhr.

What are shell and tube heat exchangers used for? ›

Shell and tube heat exchanger is used in various industrial process applications because they can perform tasks such as: Removal of process heat and feed water preheating. Cooling of hydraulic and lube oil. Cooling of turbine, compressor, and engine.

What is TEMA standard? ›

The Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association (also known as TEMA) is an association of fabricators of shell and tube type heat exchangers. TEMA has established and maintains a set of construction standards for heat exchangers, known as the TEMA Standard.

Why triangular pitch is better than square pitch? ›

The square pitch is generally not used in the fixed header sheet design because cleaning is not feasible. The triangular pitch provides a more compact arrangement, usually resulting in smaller shell, and the strongest header sheet for a specified shell-side flow area.

What are the benefits of using shell and tube type heat exchangers? ›

These advantages consist of the following:
  • Easy maintenance and repair.
  • They have no dimension limit.
  • They can be used in all applications.
  • They are resistant to thermal shocks.
  • They have a very flexible and steady design.
  • They can be designed and manufactured to handle extremely high pressures.
5 May 2021

What industries use shell and tube heat exchanger? ›

Shell and tube heat exchangers are used in the petrochemical industry for heat recovery process during the separation of oil from water and gas. Furthermore, these are used in petrochemical plants for various applications in the refining process, including evaporators, condensers, and coolers for gas scrubbing.

How many types of shell and tube heat exchanger are there? ›

In general, there are two available types of shell and tube heat exchangers, each of which is suitable for the industry in which it is used: one is shell and tube heat exchangers that are used in the petrochemical industry and follow TEMA (Tubular Exchanger Manufacturers Association) standards; Another is those used in ...

What is the best material for a heat exchanger? ›

Generally, the two most commonly selected materials for heat exchangers are aluminium and copper. Both metals have the optimum thermal properties and corrosion resistance to make them ideal choices, with most of the differences being application-specific.

How do you select a TEMA type heat exchanger? ›

There are special conditions such as high vapor flows, high pressure and temperature crossing where a combination of TEMA features is advantageous. For example, K type shells allow for proper liquid disengagement for reboilers, and J and H type shells accommodate high vapor flow. Straight Tube, Fixed Tubesheet.

What are the two types of heat exchangers? ›

There are two main types of regenerative heat exchangers—static heat exchangers and dynamic heat exchangers.

What is the purpose of TEMA? ›

The TEMA serves as a trend indicator. It is not as successfully employed in a ranging market. The TEMA is most easily used for trading purposes with trends sustained over long periods of time.

How is tube pitch calculated? ›

TEMA standards recommends a minimum tube pitch of 1.25 * Tube outer diameter for triangular pitch. For example, if we have a tube outer diameter of 12.7 mm (0.5 inch) then the recommended tube pitch for triangular pitch arrangement is: 1.25 * 12.7 mm = 16 mm (0.6 inch).

What is the fouling factor? ›

The fouling factor represents the theoretical resistance to heat flow due to a build-up of a layer of dirt or other fouling substance on the tube surfaces of the heat exchanger, but they are often overstated by the end user in an attempt to minimise the frequency of cleaning.

How do you measure tube pitch? ›

The distance between the centers of the tube hole is called the tube pitch; normally the tube pitch is 1.25 times the outside diameter of the tubes.

What are the limitations of shell and tube heat exchanger? ›

Heat exchange effectiveness is less as compared to plate type cooler. Cleaning and maintenance is troublesome since a tube cooler requires enough leeway toward one side to expel the tube nest.

Which heat exchanger design is the most efficient? ›

Plate exchanger is the most efficient due to turbulent flow on both sides. High heat-transfer coefficient and high turbulence due to even flow distribution are important. However, a plate heat exchanger regenerator is restricted to low viscosities.

Why shell and tube heat exchanger is used in oil refinery? ›

In heat exchanger, Shell and tube heat exchanger is the most utilizable exchanger which used for transfer the heat from one medium of fluid by another fluid medium through convection. In oil & gas refinery, exchange of heat is very necessary to complete the process to produce desired product in a safe manner.

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