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1 1 Study and Review Questions plus NEW Table-Top Labs* for users of The Textile Kit *ONLY included in the Instructor's Edition Also available on our website at The following Study and Review Questions help students integrate information from their textbook and lecture to apply what they have learned to the study of samples in The Textile Kit. Plus in response to requests for simple labs, we have developed NEW Table-Top Labs. These are user friendly adaptations of some of the popular labs performed at colleges and universities. We hope these exercises provide the experiences students need to better understand textiles. Use these teaching tools in a number of ways: In-class small group projects Individual student self-study outside class Review for exams Classroom discussion Laboratory exercises Exam questions (we like every exam to feature an applications section) Graded, ungraded or self-graded The KEY accompanying these exercises provides answers to questions relating to specific samples in The Textile Kit. However, because we recognize different teaching approaches and textbooks, we encourage you to accept any suitable answer in addition to the answers we have suggested. Suggestions for mounting and labeling the samples are included on the first page of each copy of The Textile Kit, although you may wish to provide supplemental instructions and guidance to your students. Some instructors have students write in the information for each sample outside class (this may take several hours) and devote a period in class to overseeing students as they attach the samples. Please contact us if you need more information. Thank you for choosing The Textile Kit from ATEXINC!

2 2 Table of Contents Study and Review Questions SRQ 1: Natural Fibers...3 SRQ 2: Manufactured Fibers...9 SRQ 3: Yarns...16 SRQ 4: Woven Fabrics...21 SRQ 5: Knits and Other Fabrics...27 SRQ 6: Dyes/Prints/Finishes...33 NEW Table-Top Labs LAB 1: Using Fiber Identification Stains (use during natural fibers unit, to understand that fibers have different chemical composition and, therefore, dye affinity)...39 LAB 2: Identification of Fibers by Burning (use during manufactured fibers unit, to understand that different fibers have different burning behavior related to class)...42 LAB 3: Heat Setting of Yarns (use during yarns unit, to understand thermoplasticity and how it affects heat setting of yarns)...49 LAB 4: Three Basic Weave Structures (use during weaves unit, to understand differences in the three main weave types)...52 LAB 5: Colorfastness to Light (start near beginning of term, due during knits unit, to understand how colorfastness to light may vary widely from fabric to fabric)...55 LAB 6: Colorfastness to Crocking (dyes/prints/finishes unit, to understand colorfastness to crocking)...58

3 3 The Textile Kit SRQ 1: Natural Fibers Name: Study and Review Questions Using samples from The Textile Kit, answer the following questions: 1-1. Sample #60 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Identify three advantages of this fiber: b. Identify three limitations of this fiber: c. Sample #56 is an example of carded cotton. Define carded: d. Find a sample fabric containing combed cotton. Sample # Fabric Name: Define combed:

4 Sample #6 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Define Pima cotton: b. Compare Pima cotton to Upland cotton: c. Identify two other fine, long-staple varieties of cotton: 1-3. Sample #8 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Identify three advantages of this fiber: b. Identify three limitations of this fiber:

5 Sample #7 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Define naturally colored cotton: b. Why are naturally colored cottons of interest to both industry and consumers? 1-5. Sample #18 Fiber content: Fabric name: Sample #19 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Identify which sample/s are made of staple fibers: b. Identify which sample/s are made of filament fibers: c. Silkworms producing cultivated silk are fed: d. Bombyx mori is:

6 Sample #15 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. What is the animal origin of the predominant fiber in this sample? b. List two properties of this fiber that differ from those of sheep's wool: 1-7. Identify the cellulosic fibers in each of the following samples. Then place a check mark in the appropriate column/s to identify the cellulosic category of each fiber. Sample #9 Sample #10 Sample #11 Sample #12 Sample #57 Fiber/s Seed Hair Bast Leaf 1-8. Identify and tell the origins of 3 minor cellulosic fibers and 3 minor protein fibers not shown as samples in The Textile Kit: a. Minor cellulosic fibers: b. Minor protein fibers:

7 Sample #13 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Suggest an end use for this fabric: b. Justify your choice in terms of fiber properties: Identify the significance of the following terms: a. mercerization: b. green cotton: c. organic cotton: d. beetling: e. Merino wool: f. virgin wool:

8 (continued) g. lamb's wool: h. sericulture: i. wild silk: j. raw silk: k. duppioni silk: l. pure dye silk: Draw a line to match each fiber type with its microscopic appearance. a. wool twisted ribbon b. silk smooth longitudinal lines c. cotton noded, like bamboo d. flax overlapping scales The End

9 9 The Textile Kit SRQ 2: Manufactured Fibers Name: Study and Review Questions Using samples from The Textile Kit, answer the following questions: 2-1. Sample #21 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Briefly define HWM rayon: b. Compare and contrast the performance of regular viscose rayon with the performance of HWM rayon in terms of fiber properties: 2-2. Sample #22 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. To what other fiber is lyocell most similar in performance? b. Identify two advantages of lyocell over this other fiber:

10 Sample #82 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Identify three advantages of this fiber to make a wedding gown: b. Identify three limitations of this fiber: 2-4. Sample #28 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Recycled fibers are becoming an important part of our lives. Identify two reasons that consumers might prefer products made of recycled fibers: b. Identify two items that can be recycled into textiles: c. Identify two items that can be made from recycled textile products:

11 Sample #26 Fiber content: Fabric name: Sample #27 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. List two advantages of the fabric made from microdenier fibers over the fabric made from regular-denier fibers. b. List two advantages of the fabric made from regular-denier fibers over the fabric made from microdenier fibers Sample #34 Fiber content: Fabric name: Sample #48 Fiber content: Fabric name: Compare and contrast the properties of the elastomeric fibers in these two samples:

12 Select a 100% nylon sample fabric that you would recommend for use in producing windbreaker jackets. Sample # Fabric name: In terms of fiber properties, justify why the fiber would be a good choice for this end use Sample #32 Fiber content: Fabric name: In terms of fiber properties, justify why the fiber would be a good choice for this end use Sample #33 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. So-called "contract fabrics" have been laboratory tested to provide data showing how well they meet the performance standards as specified in commerical building contracts. What fiber property makes modacrylic desirable in contract applications? b. Find another sample fabric number that is inherently flame resistant: Sample # Fiber content:

13 Sample #30 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Identify two end uses for Tyvek : b. List two of the advantages of this fiber: c. List two limitations of this fiber: Sample #56 Fiber content: Fabric name: Sample #93 Fiber content: Fabric name: Using these samples as a "base", compare and contrast the fiber properties of natural and manufactured/synthetic fibers (of course, there are natural and manufactured fibers other than cotton and polyester):

14 Fill in a sample number and fiber name associated with the following: Sample # Fiber Name polyamide aromatic polyamide first manufactured fiber best imitates wool inherently flame retardant first synthetic fiber first heat sensitive fiber polyurethane elastomeric polyethylene versatility in blending color scavenger fume fading latent shrinkage potential softest synthetic fiber most resembles cotton most-used fiber overall lightest weight fiber

15 Fill in a sample number and fiber name associated with the following trademarks: Sample # Fiber Name Tencel Celanese Fortrel Lycra Dacron Polynosic Supplex Gore-Tex Tyvek Nomex EcoSpun SEF-Plus Corterra Micromattique Tactel The End

16 16 The Textile Kit SRQ 3: Yarns Name: Study and Review Questions Using samples from The Textile Kit, answer the following questions: 3-1. Pull yarns from the following samples and untwist them. Place a check mark in the appropriate column to identify which samples are made of spun yarns (staple fibers) and which are made of filament yarns (filament fibers). Fabric Name Spun Yarns Filament Yarns Sample #21 Sample #23 Sample #26 Sample #45 Sample #51 Sample #52 Sample #53 Sample #81 Sample #82 Sample #166

17 a. Find a sample fabric containing smooth-filament yarns: Sample # Fabric Name a. Find a sample fabric containing bulk-continuous filament yarns: Sample # Fabric Name c. List three characteristics of bulk yarns that differ from those of smooth-filament yarns: 3-3. Sample #13 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #14 Fabric name: Fiber content: a. Define woolen: b. Define worsted: c. What two cotton processes parallel these two wool processes? 3-4. Compare and contrast the performance of ring-spun yarns versus the performance of open-end-spun yarns (OE yarns).

18 a. Define TPI: b. Identify three fabric properties resulting from increased yarn twist Match each sample to its amount of yarn twist. Fabric Name Sample #50 a. low twist Sample #57 b. napping twist Sample #58 c. average twist Sample #85 (warp) d. hard twist Sample #85 (filling) e. crepe twist 3-7. Sample #63 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. This fabric contains an intimate fiber blend. Define intimate blend: b. Identify the stage/s in production at which fibers are blended:

19 a. Identify two main contributions of the primary fiber in the blend used in Sample #63 see previous question): b. Identify two main contributions of the secondary fiber in the blend: c. Identify two advantages of this blend: 3-9. Sample #35 Fiber content: Fabric name: a. Identify two main contributions of the primary fiber in the blend: b. Identify two main contributions of the secondary fiber in the blend: c. Identify two advantages of this blend: Yarn size may be referred to as yarn number, denier, or tex. a. Spun yarn size is referred to as or. b. Filament yarn size is referred to as or. c. Identify two ways in which the tex system is superior to the use of yarn number and denier for expressing yarn size.

20 Define, in your own words, the following types of yarns. Then find a yarn that represents each type, pull it from its sample fabric, and mount it next to its description, using clear adhesive tape. a. monofilament b. simple single c. ply d. BCF e. chenille f. crepe g. slub h. tweed i. bouclé j. ratiné k. metallic l. covered/composite The End

21 21 The Textile Kit SRQ 4: Woven Fabrics Name: Study and Review Questions Using samples from The Textile Kit, answer the following questions: 4-1. Sample #3 Fabric name: Weave type: Sample #79 Fabric name: Weave type: Sample #82 Fabric name: Weave type: Using the above fabrics as reference for the three main weave types, indicate whether each characteristic is most closely associated with the plain, twill, or satin weave by writing a P for plain, T for twill, or S for satin in the blank. apt to snag hides soil wind resistant diagonal ridges ravels most most durable wrinkles easily retains soil ravels least most lustrous basket weave long floats pressure and wear cause fabric to shine no technical face and back as a result of the weave requires as few as two harnesses arrangements to weave unbalanced produces horizontal ridges

22 Match each sample to its weave type and fill in the name of the sample. Sample #40 Sample #58 Sample #63 Sample #70 Sample #74 Sample #78 Sample #81 Sample #83 Sample #88 Sample #89 Sample #94 Sample #97 Sample #98 a. dobby b. plain unbalanced c. jacquard d. even-sided twill e. slack-tension f. plain balanced g. basket h. double weave i. warp-faced twill j. momie k. satin l. pile m. leno Sample #100 Sample #102 Sample #107

23 Sample #59 Fabric name: Sample #72 Fabric name: Sample #73 Fabric name: Explain the similarities and differences in the weave structures of these fabrics Sample #3 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #41 Fabric name: Fiber content: Explain the similarities and differences in the weave structures of these fabrics Sample #83 Fabric name: Sample #85 Fabric name: Both these fabrics are made using a satin weave. How are they different?

24 Sample #77 Fabric name: Sample #164 Fabric name: Using the terms "structural design" and "applied design", explain the differences in these two houndstooth fabrics Sample #66 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #80 Fabric name: Fiber content: Compare and contrast the impact of the weave construction of these fabrics on performance if used to manufacture casual slacks Sample #85 Fabric name: Fiber content: Explain how this fabric is woven to achieve this look:

25 Sample #94 Fabric name: Sample #95 Fabric name: Sample #96 Fabric name: a. What features do damask and brocade share? b. What features distinguish brocade from damask? c. What features distinguish tapestry from other jacquard fabrics? Sample #99 Fabric name: Sample #100 Fabric name: Explain the similarities and differences in the weave structures of these two double cloth fabrics.

26 Sample #103 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #104 Fabric name: Fiber content: a. Define warp pile: b. Define filling pile: c. Sample #102 (warp or filling pile?) Sample #103 (warp or filling pile?) Sample #104 (warp or filling pile?) Sample #106 (warp or filling pile?) d. Besides weave structure, what feature distinguishes velvet and velveteen? e. How is the pile created differently in terrycloth than it is in velvet? The End

27 27 The Textile Kit SRQ 5: Knits and Other Fabrics Name: Study and Review Questions Using samples from The Textile Kit, answer the following questions: 5-1. Match each sample to its description. Fabric Name Sample #34 a. simplest warp single knit Sample #115 Sample #118 b. Raschel knit Sample #119 Sample #120 c. simplest filling single knit Sample #123 Sample #124 d. double knit/rib gaiting Sample #125 Sample #126 e. pile knit Sample #127 Sample #128 Sample #129 Sample #131 f. double knit/ interlock gaiting g. rib knit Sample #133 Sample #135 h. tuck-stitch knit Sample #136

28 Sample #115 Fabric name: Sample #3 Fabric name: a. After comparing these samples as representative of knit and woven fabrics, identify three advantages of knit fabrics: b. Identify three limitations of knit fabrics: c. The vertical rows of stitches on the face of #115 are: d. The horizontal rows of stitches on the back of #115 are: 5-3. Sample #115 Fabric name: Sample #131 Fabric name: a. Identify the main similarity in the structure of these two fabrics: b. Identify the main difference in the structure of these two fabrics:

29 Sample #115 Fabric name: Sample #117 Fabric name: a. Identify the main similarity in the stitches of these two fabrics: b. Identify the main difference in the stitches of these two fabrics: c. Identify the main difference in the performance of these fabrics Sample #127 Fabric name: Sample #128 Fabric name: a. Identify the main similarity in the stitches of these two fabrics: b. Identify the main difference in the stitches of these two fabrics: 5-6. Sample #120 Fabric name: Sample #136 Fabric name: a. Identify the main similarity in the construction of these fabrics: b. Identify the main difference in the stitches of these fabrics:

30 Sample #148 Fabric name: Sample #149 Fabric name: a. Identify two similarities in these quilted fabrics: b. Identify two differences in these quilted fabrics: 5-8. Sample #30 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #141 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #143 Fabric name: Fiber content: a. What structural characteristic do these three fabrics share? b. What three different structural processes are used to create these three different fabrics?

31 Sample #150 Fabric name: Explain how this fabric is constructed: Sample #158 Fabric name: a. Is the design on this fabric structural or applied? b. Compare the serviceability and cost of this flocked sample with those of a "true" dotted swiss: Sample #38 Fabric name: Fiber content of membrane: Describe the performance advantages of this microporous fabric: Sample #142 Fabric name: Describe the advantages of this fabric:

32 Sample #138 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #139 Fabric name: Fiber content: a. Identify the main similarity in the structures of these two fabrics. b. Identify the main difference in the structure of these two fabrics: a. Define laminated: b. Find two sample fabric numbers that are laminated Sample # Fabric Name Sample #143 Fabric name: Compare and contrast the structure of leather and imitation leather such as Naugahyde or pleather. The End

33 33 The Textile Kit SRQ 6: Dyes/Prints/Finishes Name: Study and Review Questions Using samples from The Textile Kit, answer the following questions: 6-1. Sample #65 Fabric name: Sample #166 Fabric name: Using the terms "applied design" and "structural design", explain the differences in these moiré designs: 6-2. Sample #58 Fabric name: Sample #165 Fabric name: Using the terms "applied design" and "structural design", explain the differences in these gingham check designs: 6-3. Sample #152 Fabric name: Fiber content: This cotton is mercerized. Explain the effects of mercerization:

34 Sample #51 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #55 Fabric name: Fiber content: One of the known fiber properties of cotton is its softness. Why are these two fabric samples stiff? 6-5. Sample #13 Fabric name: Fiber content: a. Define stock/fiber dyed: b. Define piece dyed: c. Is this fabric stock dyed or piece dyed?

35 Sample #60 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #163 Fabric name: Fiber content: a. Define cross dyed: b. How does the final appearance of this particular fabric differ from that of a yarn-dyed plaid? 6-7. Sample #30 Fabric name: Fiber content: a. Why was this fabric solution dyed? b. Identify the main advantage of solution dyeing: c. Identify the main disadvantage of solution dyeing:

36 a. Define napped: b. Identify three sample fabrics that are napped: Sample # Fabric Name c. Why are fabrics napped? 6-9. Sample #138 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #156 Fabric name: Fiber content: a. The raised pattern/design in these fabrics is: b. The raised pattern/design was created by (technique): on Sample #138: on Sample #156: c. Compare plissé to Sample # 107 seersucker; how is the raised pattern/design created on seersucker? (Hint: It is not a finish.)

37 Sample #170 Fabric name: Fiber content: Sample #171 Fabric name: Fiber content: a. Explain the resist process used to create batik: b. Explain the resist process used to create tie dye: a. Find two sample fabric numbers that are direct roller prints: Sample # Fabric Name b. Find two sample fabric numbers that are screen prints: Sample # Fabric Name c. Using these samples as a basis, which process would you suggest for printing a relatively large-scale design (versus a small-scale, classic design)?

38 Match each sample to its description. Fabric Name Sample #8 Sample #14 Sample #40 Sample #49 Sample #51 Sample # 4 Sample #61 Sample #83 Sample #132 Sample #153 Sample #154 Sample #155 Sample #157 Sample #159 Sample #160 Sample #161 Sample #163 Sample #168 a. mothproof b. permanent press c. burned out d. Scotchgard e. anti-static f. sequined g. sueded/emerized h. parchmentized i. chemical wash j. glazed k. pressed l. embroidered m. pleated n. brushed o. one dye bath, multiple colors p. Teflon q. beetled r. bleached The End

39 39 Table-Top Labs: READ THIS FIRST! Objectives: Before beginning the lab exercises, you will learn about safety practices and general laboratory policies to be followed at all times when you are performing lab exercises. Please review this page as often as necessary. Rationale: The safety practices and general laboratory policies on this page will ensure the smooth performance of the lab exercises and help guard against accidental injuries. Part A: Safety Practices: So-called Table-Top Labs are useful because they can be performed not only in traditional laboratory facilities but also, because they require simple equipment, in classrooms (with permission from your institution) or even at home. However, standard safety practices must be followed regardless of where lab exercises are performed. Important rules include: 1. Have adult supervision at all times during laboratory exercises. 2. Use common sense at all times, especially in dealing with chemicals, fire, stoves, ovens, and microwaves. 3. NO EATING, DRINKING, OR SMOKING while performing laboratory exercises. 4. DO NOT INHALE, INGEST, OR TASTE ANY SUBSTANCE with which you are working. Do not perform labs using utensils in which food will be prepared. 5. Safety glasses with side shields or safety goggles are required as eye protection. They must be worn at all times chemicals or flames are used. 6. To minimize hazard, tie back long hair securely. Apparel: NO shorts, NO bare feet. NO open-toed shoes, all for safety reasons. Students are encouraged to wear a lab apron or lab coat. 7. Provide for adequate ventilation. Keep chemicals away from flames. Have a fire extinguisher nearby when performing burn tests in case of emergency. 8. Read safety information on all equipment and materials. 9. Follow directions for each exercise. Always read the instructions BEFORE beginning. Do NOT alter the experiment without your instructor s approval. 10. Always ask for exercises, procedures, or problems to be clarified before starting any exercise. Do not attempt to proceed with an exercise if you are unclear about what is expected or required. I have read the above Safety Practices and General Laboratory Policies and agree to abide by these rules for the safety and enjoyment of myself and others. Signature Date Part B: General Laboratory Policies: Some other policies that will help you have a more successful experience: 1. Prepare each day by reviewing the text and lab exercise before coming to class. 2. Clean your own laboratory space, equipment, and materials. Also assist in maintaining and cleaning the common areas of the laboratory. 3. Lab reports are due on the date specified by the instructor.

40 40 LAB 1: Using Fiber Identification Stains Objective: Using fiber identification stains to see how different fibers selectively absorb dyes. Rationale: By observing how different fibers selectively absorb dyes based on the fiber s chemical composition, you will understand the need to carefully develop dye formulas to achieve a union of the same shade when dyeing a blended fabric (for example, 65% polyester, 35% cotton). Also, you will appreciate the challenge of dyeing an acetate lining to the exact same shade as a wool jacket, or dyeing coordinating separates (tops and bottoms, for example) made from different fibers. And you will better understand the ability of a fabric with stripes or plaids woven from different fibers to be cross dyed in a single dye bath (formulated with dyes that will dye each fiber a different color) to produce a multi-color striped or plaid fabric. Introduction: In this lab, you will stain a sample of multi-fiber fabric using Fiber Identification Stains. Fiber identification stains contain several different classes of dyes which selectively dye specific fibers depending on their chemical composition. Your multi-fiber fabric sample contains acetate, acrylic, cotton, nylon, polyester, and wool. By dyeing the fabric with Fiber Identification Stains, you should be able to identify each fiber by comparing it to the key provided by your instructor (or log on to Fiber identification stains were developed to identify unknown fibers. (Note: For best results, use both Stain No. 1 and Stain No. 3A when identifying fibers. Identification stains are not suitable for identifying fibers or fabrics which have been previously dyed or printed. Finishes may also change dye affinity and affect test results when using identification stains.) Materials Required: Swatch of multi-fiber fabric* (Sample #5 in The Textile Kit) Fiber Identification Stain No. 1 and No. 3A * Distilled white vinegar Heat source Cold soapy water and cold rinse water Heat-resistant beaker or pan for boiling solutions Paper towels Procedures: 1. Cut your swatch of multi-fiber fabric into two pieces (be sure to cut lengthwise so that all fiber types are represented in each sample). 2. Dissolve 50 mg of Fiber Identification Stain No. 1 in 100 ml hot water. Bring to a boil. Immerse sample of multi-fiber fabric for 5 minutes at boiling temperature. Wash in cold soapy water and then rinse thoroughly in cold water and dry. 3. Dissolve 50 mg of Fiber Identification Stain No. 3A in 100 ml hot water. Bring to a boil. Add.5 ml to 1 ml of distilled white vinegar. Immerse sample of multi-fiber fabric for 5 minutes at boiling temperature. Wash in cold soapy water and then rinse thoroughly in cold water and dry. 4. Using tape, mount your samples on the answer sheet. 5. Compare your samples to the key provided by your instructor (or log on to and identify each fiber on the answer sheet. 6. Complete the answer sheet. *available from Textile Innovators Corporation, Windsor, NC, phone , fax

41 41 LAB 1: Answer Sheet Name: Multi-fiber fabric Dyed using Fiber Identification Stain No. 1 Multi-fiber fabric Dyed using Fiber Identification Stain No. 3A 1. Starting at the top, identify each fiber type: First: Second: Third: Fourth: Fifth: Sixth: 2. Explain the challenges of union dyeing blended fabrics:

42 42 LAB 1: Answer Sheet (continued) 3. Sketch a striped or plaid fabric and diagram the fiber types to be used in weaving it to achieve a multi-colored finished fabric via cross dyeing in a single dye bath. Explain your answer below. 4. Explain why it is difficult to dye the polyester binding on the neckline of a cotton t-shirt to the exact same shade as the t-shirt fabric.

43 43 LAB 2: Identification of Fibers by Burning Objective: To learn how to identify unknown fibers by burning. The three most common methods used to identify fibers are 1) burning test, 2) microscopic examination, and 3) solubility analysis. Rationale: The ability to perform fiber identification can confirm fiber i.d. and label accuracy and can yield important information about textile products with missing labels as well as about historic items that predate today's labeling requirements. Correct fiber identification on a garment is a federal regulation overseen by the Federal Trade Commission; U.S. Customs enforces this regulation on imported products. Introduction: For both natural and manufactured fibers, the burning test is used to identify general groups of fibers cellulosics, proteins, synthetics and minerals rather than specific generic fibers. This lab involves fabrics made 100% from single fiber types. Fiber identification is more difficult when a fabric contains more than one fiber type. Materials Required: Tweezers (or sewing bodkin) Short candle and matches or lighter Disposable pie tin Scissors and tape Samples: cotton, linen, wool, silk, rayon, acetate, nylon, polyester, acrylic Procedures: 1. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS: Tie back long hair, wear eye protection, roll up long sleeves if not wearing a lab coat and provide adequate ventilation during this lab. Avoid breathing smoke or fiber residue. DO NOT HAVE ANY NAIL POLISH, NAIL POLISH REMOVER, RUBBER CEMENT OR OTHER GLUES, OR ANY OTHER CHEMICALS NEAR OPEN FLAMES!!! Always use common sense when dealing with fire and have adult supervision. 2. Label samples A-I. Cut fabric samples into very narrow strips. Mount one strip from each sample in the space provided on the answer sheet. 3. Place candle in pie tin and light. 4. Hold one strip of fabric in tweezers and slowly approach the flame. Observe. You may wish to work with a partner or in a small group to help one another record observations. 5. Move the strip into the flame and observe burning behavior (e.g., color of flame, burning or melting, etc. see charts on following pages). Record results on worksheet. 6. Remove the strip from the flame and observe burning behavior. Record. DO NOT BLOW OUT THE FLAME if you do, burning sample material could fly or splatter and burn someone. 7. After the flame has gone out, drop residue into pie tin. Record any odor you observe (REMEMBER, AVOID TAKING A DEEP BREATH OF SMOKE OR FIBER RESIDUE). 8. After the residue or ash has cooled, touch it. Record results. 9. Repeat as many times as necessary to confirm and record all your observations for each fabric sample before moving to the next sample. 10. Refer to the Fiber Burning Test Flow Chart to determine the fiber group for each sample (cellulosic, protein, thermoplastic, mineral). 11. Then determine the specific fiber for each sample to the best of your ability by using your textbook and the Fiber Burning Characteristics Chart. This may be a best guess partly based on your knowledge of the hand and luster of each fiber and its common fabrications. 12. Write the fiber group and fiber name on the worksheet. You must correctly identify the fiber group for each sample. Complete answer sheet.

44 44 LAB 2: Fiber Burning Test Flow Chart Flammable Non-Flammable Chars Melts Burns with bright yellow flame; afterglow; gray feathery ash; odor of burning paper Cellulosic Fuses and curls away from flame, self-extinguishing, crushable black ash, odor of burning hair Protein Melts and shrinks from flame, burns with some melting; black hard, brittle, irregular bead; sour odor Thermoplastic Melts and shrinks from flame; burns slowly; melts rapidly; selfextinguishing; black or gray round hard bead; sweeter odor Mineral Cotton or Linen or Rayon Wool or Silk Acetate or Acrylic Nylon or Polyester Glass

45 45 LAB 2: Fiber Burning Characteristics Chart Fiber Approaching Flame In Flame Removed from Flame Odor Residue Cotton Does not fuse or shrink away Burns rapidly, bright yellow, no melting Continues to burn; afterglow Paper or wood Small fluffy light gray ash Linen Does not fuse or shrink away Burns rapidly, bright yellow, no melting Continues to burn; afterglow Paper or wood Small fluffy light gray ash Rayon Does not fuseshrink away Burns rapidly Leaves a creeping ember Paper or wood Small fluffy light gray ash Wool Fuses and curls away from flame Burns slowly Burns slowly, sometimes selfextinguishing Strong hair or feather Brittle, lumpy bead, a little harder than silk s Silk Fuses and curls away from flame Burns slowly Burns slowly, sometimes selfextinguishing Slight hair or feather Brittle, lumpy bead which powders when pressed Acetate Melts and shrinks away from flame Sparks and melts Continues to burn with melting Vinegar, sour Hard, brittle,black, irregular bead Acrylic Shrinks away from flame Burns rapidly with some melting Continues to burn with melting Sour, acrid Hard, brittle,black, irregular bead Nylon Polyester Melts and shrinks away from flame Melts and shrinks away from flame Burns slowly, melts rapidly, often carries flame as it melts Burns slowly, melts rapidly, long black smoke Usually selfextinguishing Usually selfextinguishing Cooked celery Sweet, chemical Hard, round, tough gray bead Hard, round, tough black bead Glass Will not burn Will not burn Will not burn Wax Flame will leave carbon residue, heat may change shape * This chart summarize the standard burning characteristics of the major generic fiber types. Slight differences Users in of the The burning Textile Kit characteristics Isis Edition are hereby of granted your lab permission samples to reproduce and the these standards pages for classroom given purposes. here for the same generic fiber 2004 type ATEXINC, may be Corporation due to the presence of various dyes Website: and finishes, if any, as well as other attributes such as yarn twist and fabrication density which affect burning characteristics.

46 46 A B C Fiber name: Fiber group: Tape piece of sample here: a. doesn t fuse or shrink away b. fuses and curls away a. burns rapidly b. burns a bright yellow c. no melting d. some melting e. sparks f. supports flame as it melts g. melts rapidly h. long dark smoke i. will not burn a. continues to burn b. afterglow c. self-extinguishing d. melting a. burned paper or wood b. burned hair or feathers c. non-specific chemical smell d. vinegar e. cooked celery f. wax a. fluffy gray ash b. no ash c. brittle lumpy bead d. hard dark unbreakable bead e. hard gray or brown unbreakable bead f. carbon residue Fiber name: Fiber group: Tape piece of sample here: a. doesn t fuse or shrink away b. fuses and curls away a. burns rapidly b. burns a bright yellow c. no melting d. some melting e. sparks f. supports flame as it melts g. melts rapidly h. long dark smoke i. will not burn a. continues to burn b. afterglow c. self-extinguishing d. melting a. burned paper or wood b. burned hair or feathers c. non-specific chemical smell d. vinegar e. cooked celery f. wax a. fluffy gray ash b. no ash c. brittle lumpy bead d. hard dark unbreakable bead e. hard gray or brown unbreakable bead f. carbon residue Fiber name: Fiber group: Tape piece of sample here: a. doesn t fuse or shrink away b. fuses and curls away a. burns rapidly b. burns a bright yellow c. no melting d. some melting e. sparks f. supports flame as it melts g. melts rapidly h. long dark smoke i. will not burn a. continues to burn b. afterglow c. self-extinguishing d. melting a. burned paper or wood b. burned hair or feathers c. non-specific chemical smell d. vinegar e. cooked celery f. wax a. fluffy gray ash b. no ash c. brittle lumpy bead d. hard dark unbreakable bead e. hard gray or brown unbreakable bead f. carbon residue Sample Info Approaching Flame In Flame Removed from Flame Odor Residue LAB 2: Worksheet (For each sample, circle as many burning characteristics as apply.) Name:

47 47 D E F Fiber name: Fiber group: Tape piece of sample here: a. doesn t fuse or shrink away b. fuses and curls away a. burns rapidly b. burns a bright yellow c. no melting d. some melting e. sparks f. supports flame as it melts g. melts rapidly h. long dark smoke i. will not burn a. continues to burn b. afterglow c. self-extinguishing d. melting a. burned paper or wood b. burned hair or feathers c. non-specific chemical smell d. vinegar e. cooked celery f. wax a. fluffy gray ash b. no ash c. brittle lumpy bead d. hard dark unbreakable bead e. hard gray or brown unbreakable bead f. carbon residue Fiber name: Fiber group: Tape piece of sample here: a. doesn t fuse or shrink away b. fuses and curls away a. burns rapidly b. burns a bright yellow c. no melting d. some melting e. sparks f. supports flame as it melts g. melts rapidly h. long dark smoke i. will not burn a. continues to burn b. afterglow c. self-extinguishing d. melting a. burned paper or wood b. burned hair or feathers c. non-specific chemical smell d. vinegar e. cooked celery f. wax a. fluffy gray ash b. no ash c. brittle lumpy bead d. hard dark unbreakable bead e. hard gray or brown unbreakable bead f. carbon residue Fiber name: Fiber group: Tape piece of sample here: a. doesn t fuse or shrink away b. fuses and curls away a. burns rapidly b. burns a bright yellow c. no melting d. some melting e. sparks f. supports flame as it melts g. melts rapidly h. long dark smoke i. will not burn a. continues to burn b. afterglow c. self-extinguishing d. melting a. burned paper or wood b. burned hair or feathers c. non-specific chemical smell d. vinegar e. cooked celery f. wax a. fluffy gray ash b. no ash c. brittle lumpy bead d. hard dark unbreakable bead e. hard gray or brown unbreakable bead f. carbon residue Sample Info Approaching Flame In Flame Removed from Flame Odor Residue LAB 2: Worksheet (continued) For each sample, circle as many burning characteristics as apply.) Name:

48 48 G H I Fiber name: Fiber group: Tape piece of sample here: a. doesn t fuse or shrink away b. fuses and curls away a. burns rapidly b. burns a bright yellow c. no melting d. some melting e. sparks f. supports flame as it melts g. melts rapidly h. long dark smoke i. will not burn a. continues to burn b. afterglow c. self-extinguishing d. melting a. burned paper or wood b. burned hair or feathers c. non-specific chemical smell d. vinegar e. cooked celery f. wax a. fluffy gray ash b. no ash c. brittle lumpy bead d. hard dark unbreakable bead e. hard gray or brown unbreakable bead f. carbon residue Fiber name: Fiber group: Tape piece of sample here: a. doesn t fuse or shrink away b. fuses and curls away a. burns rapidly b. burns a bright yellow c. no melting d. some melting e. sparks f. supports flame as it melts g. melts rapidly h. long dark smoke i. will not burn a. continues to burn b. afterglow c. self-extinguishing d. melting a. burned paper or wood b. burned hair or feathers c. non-specific chemical smell d. vinegar e. cooked celery f. wax a. fluffy gray ash b. no ash c. brittle lumpy bead d. hard dark unbreakable bead e. hard gray or brown unbreakable bead f. carbon residue Fiber name: Fiber group: Tape piece of sample here: a. doesn t fuse or shrink away b. fuses and curls away a. burns rapidly b. burns a bright yellow c. no melting d. some melting e. sparks f. supports flame as it melts g. melts rapidly h. long dark smoke i. will not burn a. continues to burn b. afterglow c. self-extinguishing d. melting a. burned paper or wood b. burned hair or feathers c. non-specific chemical smell d. vinegar e. cooked celery f. wax a. fluffy gray ash b. no ash c. brittle lumpy bead d. hard dark unbreakable bead e. hard gray or brown unbreakable bead f. carbon residue Sample Info Approaching Flame In Flame Removed from Flame Odor Residue LAB 2: Worksheet (continued) For each sample, circle as many burning characteristics as apply.) Name:

49 49 LAB 2: Answer Sheet 1. Identify the general burning characteristics of cellulosic fibers (e.g., ability to support flame, speed of burning, afterglow, odor, residue, etc.) 2. Identify the general burning characteristics of protein fibers (e.g., ability to support flame, speed of burning, afterglow, odor, residue, etc.) 3. Identify the general burning characteristics of synthetic fibers (e.g., ability to support flame, speed of burning, afterglow, odor, residue, etc.)

50 50 LAB 3: Heat Setting of Yarns Objective: To gain a better understanding of the relationship of thermoplastic fibers to the heat setting of yarns (and thus fabrics). Rationale: Understanding how thermoplastic fibers affect the heat setting of yarns (and fabrics) will help students predict which yarns (and fabrics) can be heat set. Introduction: In this lab, students will attempt to heat set one yarn made of thermoplastic fibers and one yarn made of non-thermoplastic fibers to demonstrate which type of fibers/yarns can be heat set. Materials Required: Polyester yarn or sewing thread (approx. 12 inches) Cotton yarn or sewing thread (approx. 12 inches) Aluminum foil or disposable pie tin Two straight pins or straightened paper clips Oven preheated to 300 F. Warm, soapy water (laundry or dish detergent OK) Paper towels Tape Procedures: 1. Wind the polyester yarn in a coil around a straight pin or straightened paper clip. Repeat using the cotton yarn. 2. Place the coiled yarns onto the aluminum foil or disposable pie tin and place in 300 F oven. 3. Bake for 20 minutes to heat set, carefully remove from oven, and let cool for 5 minutes. 4. Complete the answer sheet.

51 51 LAB 3: Answer Sheet Name: 1. Unwind the two yarns and describe their appearance: Polyester: Cotton: 2. Tightly extend both yarns to their fullest length possible and hold for about 30 seconds; release. Describe the results. Polyester: Cotton: 3. Place both yarns in warm, soapy water for approximately 30 seconds; agitate to simulate machine laundering; rinse and blot dry with a paper towel. Using tape, mount the yarns below and describe the results. Polyester Cotton Results:

52 52 LAB 3: Answer Sheet (continued) 4. Explain why the polyester and cotton yarns behaved as they did in Steps 2 and 3, using the fiber properties of polyester and cotton to justify your answer. 5. Yarns made from other thermoplastic fibers would react to heat setting in much the same manner as the polyester yarn did. Yarns made from other non-thermoplastic fibers would react to heat setting in much the same manner as the cotton yarn did. Indicate whether yarns made from each fiber listed below would behave more like polyester or more like cotton in reaction to heat. Yarn made from: Reaction to heat (circle the correct answer): nylon more like: cotton polyester silk more like: cotton polyester rayon more like: cotton polyester acrylic more like: cotton polyester wool more like: cotton polyester flax more like: cotton polyester acetate more like: cotton polyester olefin more like: cotton polyester spandex more like: cotton polyester

53 53 LAB 4: Three Basic Weave Structures Name: Objective: To understand the three basic weave structures and their characteristics. Rationale: All woven fabrics are derived from one of three basic weave structures. The weave structure affects many of the performance characteristics of the fabric. Therefore, a better understanding of the weave structures leads to an increased ability to predict fabric performance. Introduction: In this lab, students will use paper strips to simulate yarns as they weave a sample of each of the three main weave structures. Then they will use their woven samples to answer general questions about each of the three main weave structures and the impact of weave structure on fabric performance. Materials Required: 2 contrasting colors of paper, 8 1/2 x 11 (3 sheets of each color)* Tape Textbook NOTE: Some instructors may allow students to use materials other than paper to complete this assignment. For example, knitting yarns, rubberband strips, fabric strips, and other creative materials may be used for weaving the samples. Procedures: 1. Cut each sheet of paper into narrow strips (make your darker paper the warp and use a white paper for the filling). To make this easy, the templates on the following pages may be photocopied onto the paper before cutting. Also, some paper shredders work well for quickly creating uniform paper yarns without the use of templates. 2. Tape a set of dark/warp yarns together across the top edge. 3. Weave the following three samples, using information from your textbook and the following illustrations as a guide: Plain Weave 2/1 Twill Weave 7/1 Satin Weave (alternating over and under) (under 2, over 1, progress 1) (under 7, over 1, progress 2) Weave a set of white/filling yarns into the dark/warp yarns according to the diagrams above and referring to information about each basic weave type in your textbook. Tape across the bottom edge of each sample when finished. You may also wish to tape the side edges, or selvages. 4. Use your weave samples to help you answer your Study and Review Questions in SRQ Write your name on each weave sample and staple them to this sheet.

54 W A R P 54

55 F I L L I N G 55

56 56 LAB 5: Colorfastness to Light Objective: To observe the varying lightfastness, or colorfastness to light, of different fabrics. Rationale: Lightfastness is an important property of fabrics intended for certain end use products, for example, home furnishings, particularly window treatments and other items that will receive heavy exposure to sunlight or artificial light. Introduction: In this lab, you will achieve an approximate, comparative analysis of the lightfastness of different fabrics. Professional textile testing labs usually test lightfastness using weatherometers or other equipment that simulate exposure to different types of light under carefully controlled conditions (see AATCC Method 16 for details). Materials Required: Fabric (2 x 3 or larger if available) Tape Window (sunny, south-facing window is preferable) NOTE: Using additional samples of the same fabric, you may repeat this test under various conditions (for example, north-facing window, fluorescent lighting, incandescent lighting) to simulate colorfastness to varying degrees and types of light, which is important for different end uses). Procedures: 1. Using pen or pencil and ruler, mark off six equal columns on the back or wrong side of your fabric sample and label each column as samples Cut off sample 1 and mount it as a control sample (away from sunlight) on your answer sheet. 3. Tape the remaining fabric on a sunny window with the face or right side of the fabric on the glass (facing the outside). 4. After the following times, cut off the test samples as follows and mount each sample on your answer sheet. Sample 2 4 days Sample 3 8 days Sample 4 16 days Sample 5 32 days Sample 6 64 days 5. Compare each test sample to your control sample and rate it according to the following scale: 1.0 = Significant change 2.0 = Moderate change 3.0 = Noticeable change 4.0 = Slight change 5.0 = No change or negligible change 6. Complete the answer sheet.

57 57 LAB 5: Answer Sheet Name: Mounted in window facing: (direction) Date started: Mount Sample 1 Control here: Color change rating scale: 1 = Significant change 2 = Moderate change 3 = Noticeable change 4 = Slight change 5 = No change or negligible change Date after 4 days: Mount Sample 2 here: Rating and comments: Date after 8 days: Mount Sample 3 here: Rating and comments: Date after 16 days: Mount Sample 4 here: Rating and comments: Date after 32 days: Mount Sample 5 here: Rating and comments: Date after 64 days: Mount Sample 6 here: Rating and comments:

58 58 LAB 5: Answer Sheet (continued) 1. Fabric name: Fiber content: Stage of dyeing (if known): Printed (yes or no): Main color/s (hue, value, intensity): 2. Compare your results to those of other students in your class. What conclusions, if any, can you draw about the relationship between fiber type, stage of dyeing or printing, and color (hue, value, intensity), and colorfastness to light? 3. Identify 3 product categories where evaluating fabric for colorfastness to light is important.

59 59 LAB 6: Colorfastness to Crocking Objective: To demonstrate whether or not a fabric will transfer color when rubbed against another fabric. Rationale: It is important to identify fabrics with poor colorfastness to crocking. Products made from such fabrics will cause problems for consumers in use. For example, dye from a jacket fabric may rub off on the fabric of the shirt worn beneath it. Fabrics with a tendency to crock may transfer dye not only to other fabrics but to other surfaces, such as the wall behind a sofa, or the skin beneath a pair of jeans. Crocking is usually measured both dry, to predict color transfer problems that may occur during ordinary use, and wet, to predict color transfer problems that may occur when fabrics get damp or wet, for example, when swimsuits are worn while wet and sitting on furniture. Introduction: Crocking is usually determined in a laboratory using a standard test method and a machine called a crockmeter which repeatedly rubs the surface of the fabric with a mechanical finger covered in white fabric. The amount of color transferred from the test fabric to the white fabric is evaluated as a measure of colorfastness to crocking. In this lab exercise, you will simulate this test by manually rubbing a test specimen. Materials Required: Test sample of solid colored fabric (preferably at least 3 x 10 ) 2 samples of white 100% cotton muslin fabric, each at least 2 x 2 Pencil with eraser or ink pen with flat end Rubber band or string Water Paper towels Procedures: 1. Place a sample of solid colored fabric on a flat desktop or tabletop. 2. Place a piece of white fabric over the eraser end of a pencil or flat end of an ink pen and secure with a rubber band or string. 3. Rub the white fabric across the face of the colored fabric 10 times, using moderate pressure (about what you would use to erase a pencil mark on a piece of paper). Each rubbing should be back and forth and preferably cover about 6 inches of length (if test samples are smaller, rub more times to compensate). 4. Remove the white fabric and lay it out flat on the desktop or tabletop. Examine it to see how much, if any, color transferred onto it from the colored fabric. Use the following scale to evaluate colorfastness to dry crocking: 1.0 = Significant change 2.0 = Moderate change 3.0 = Noticeable change 4.0 = Slight change 5.0 = No change or negligible change 5. Repeat the above test, but first wet the white fabric sample and blot it with a paper towel to absorb excess moisture (it should be damp, not dripping wet). This will determine the colored fabric s colorfastness to wet crocking. Be sure to rub in a different area on the colored fabric. 6. Complete the answer sheet.

60 60 LAB 6: Answer Sheet Name: Fabric name: Fiber content: Stage of dyeing (if known): Printed (yes or no): Main color/s (hue/value/intensity): Sample of fabric tested White fabric from dry crocking test Colorfastness rating: White fabric from wet crocking test Colorfastness rating:

61 61 LAB 6: Answer Sheet (continued) 2. Compare your results to those of other students in your class. What fiber types exhibited the least resistance to crocking? 3. What colors (hues/values/intensities) exhibited the least resistance to crocking? 4. Identify 3 product categories where evaluating fabric for colorfastness to crocking is important. 5. In addition to colorfastness to light and colorfastness to crocking, what other measures of colorfastness are important, particularly for apparel fabrics? 01/05/04

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